Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Definition and Examples of Terms of Address A term of address is a word, phrase, name, or title (or some combination of these) used to address someone in writing or while speaking. Terms of address are also known as address terms or forms of address. Nicknames, pronouns, pejoratives, and terms of endearment all qualify. Key Takeaways: Terms of Address A term of address is any word, phrase, name, or title used to address another person.Terms of address may be formal (Doctor, The Honorable, His Excellence) or informal (honey, dear, you). Formal terms of address are often used to recognize academic or professional accomplishments, while informal terms of address are often used to show affection. A term of address may be friendly (dude, sweetheart), unfriendly (You idiot!), neutral (Jerry, Marge), respectful (Your honor), disrespectful (buddy, said with sarcasm), or comradely (My friends). Although a term of address commonly appears at the beginning of a sentence, as in Doctor, Im not convinced that this treatment is working, it may also be used between phrases or clauses. For example: Im not convinced, doctor, that this treatment is working. Related terms includeÃ direct address,Ã vocative, andÃ honorific. Direct address is just what it sounds like. The speaker is talking directly to the person mentioned, as in the above conversation with the doctor. A vocative is the term of address used, such as the word doctor in the previous example. An honorific is a term used to show respect and comes before a name, such as Mr., Ms., the Reverend, the Honorable, and the like, as in, Mr. Smith, Ms. Jones, the Reverend Christian, and the judge, the Honorable J.C. Johnson. In formal contexts, terms of address may sometimes be used to indicate that a person has more power or authority than another. In those cases, terms of address can be used to show respect for or submission to another. Formal Terms of Address Formal terms of address are typically used in professional contexts such as academia, government, medicine, religion, and the military. In the United States, common examples include: Professor: Used to address a member of a school or universitys faculty.His/Her Excellency: Used to address the ambassadors of foreign governments.The Honorable: Used to address American ambassadors along with U.S. judges and justices.His/Her Royal Highness: Used to address members of a royal family, including British princes and princesses.Doctor: Used to address a physician who has obtained a medical degree or someone with a Ph.D.Captain: Used to address U.S. naval commanders regardless of rank; any officer who has been placed in charge of a vessel may be addressed this way.His Holiness: Used to address both the Pope of the Catholic Church and the Dalai Lama. Most formal titles, both in speaking and writing, precede a persons name. Those that follow a name include the honorary Esquire and academic suffixes that indicate possession of a degree, such as John Smith, Ph.D. Members of religious orders also use suffixes, such as John Smith, O.F.M., which indicates membership in the Ordo Fratrum Minorum (the Order of Friars Minor). Informal Forms of Address Informal terms of address are used outside of professional contexts and include terms such as nicknames, pronouns, and terms of endearment. Unlike professional forms of address, which are typically used to recognize a persons authority or accomplishments, informal terms of address are typically used to express affection or closeness. In the United States, common examples include: Honey: Used to show affection for a romantic partner or child.Dear: Used to show affection for a romantic partner or close friend.Babe/Baby: Used to show affection for a romantic partner.Bud/Buddy: Used to show affection for a close friend or child (sometimes used in a pejorative sense). In English, informal titles are sometimes used to show respect. Unlike formal titles, these do not indicate any level of professional or educational accomplishment: Mr.: Used to address both married and unmarried men.Mrs.: Used to address married women.Miss: Used to address unmarried women and girls.Ms.: Used to address women when marital status is unknown. The simple pronoun you can also be used as a term of address, i.e. Hey you, hows it going? In English, you is always informal. Some other languages, however, use multiple pronouns, each indicating a certain degree of formality. Japanese, for example, has many different pronouns that can be used between people depending on their relationship, and Spanish has both familiar and formal pronouns used as terms of address. Historically, terms of address have been used to emphasize class differences between those who have power and those who do not. The asymmetric use of names andÃ address termsÃ is often a clear indicator of a power differential, writes linguist Ronald Wardhaugh: School classrooms are almost universally good examples;Ã JohnÃ andÃ SallyÃ are likely to be children andÃ MissÃ orÃ Mr. SmithÃ to be teachers. For a long time in the southern states of the United States, whites used naming and addressing practices to put blacks in their place. Hence the odious use ofÃ BoyÃ to address black males. The asymmetric use of names also was part of the system. Whites addressed blacks by their first names in situations which required them to use titles, or titles and last names if they were addressing whites. There was a clear racial distinction in the process. Sources Straus, Jane. The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation: the Mysteries of Grammar and Punctuation Revealed. John Wiley Sons, 2006.Wardhaugh, Ronald. Understanding English Grammar: a Linguistic Approach. Blackwell, 2007.
Saturday, November 23, 2019
3 Ways to Avoid Confusing Your Readers 3 Ways to Avoid Confusing Your Readers 3 Ways to Avoid Confusing Your Readers By Mark Nichol Word choice, insertion or omission of punctuation, and syntax (arrangement of words and phrases) all affect comprehension. In each of the following sentences, one of these components of sentence construction is the source of ambiguity or confusion. Discussion of each example follows, along with a revision. 1. Our organization has sponsored AIDS/HIV walks across the country. Across is often used as a synonym for throughout, but here, it prompts the unfortunate misapprehension that the walks are transcontinental in scope. In this case, throughout is a better choice: Ã¢â¬Å"Our organization has sponsored AIDS/HIV walks throughout the country.Ã¢â¬ Take-away: Remain vigilant about ambiguous wording. 2. These results are not surprising because cyber risks have evolved into a moving target. This sentence, as written, suggests that the reader, after learning from the second half of the sentence what is not the reason the results are surprising, will read in a subsequent sentence the reason they are. But Ã¢â¬Å"cyber risks have evolved into a moving targetÃ¢â¬ is the reason the results are not surprising, which is made clear simply by applying a brief pause to the sentence in the form of a comma preceding the explanation, which renders the explanation a subordinate clause set off from the premise of the sentence (Ã¢â¬Å"The results are not surprisingÃ¢â¬ ): Ã¢â¬Å"These results are not surprising, because cyber risks have evolved into a moving target.Ã¢â¬ Better yet, begin the sentence with the explanation, still in the form of a subordinate clause: Ã¢â¬Å"Because cyber risks have evolved into a moving target, these results are not surprising.Ã¢â¬ Take-away: When a negative statement is followed by an explanation, separate the explanation, a subordinate clause, from the main clause. (A positive statement generally needs no such punctuation, though exceptions exist.) 3. By taking a risk-based approach, such changes can be tailored to fit the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s specific risk posture. All too often, writers mistakenly craft sentences in which subordinate clauses placed as introductory phrases are assumed to pertain to the subject of the main clauses when the two elements are only tangentially related. Here, changes are mistakenly said to take a risk-based approach, but an unnamed actor must be persuaded to do so. In most cases, simply revise the subject so that it logically follows the subordinate clause: Ã¢â¬Å"By taking a risk-based approach, one can tailor such changes to fit the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s specific risk posture.Ã¢â¬ Take-away: Be alert to dangling participles. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Writing Basics category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Fly, Flew, (has) FlownFlied?50 Latin Phrases You Should Know20 Classic Novels You Can Read in One Sitting
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Drug Trafficking - Research Paper Example Drug addicts are usually morally corrupt people and so are the drug traffickers. This paper discusses the potential means and ways by which drugs reach US and how it impacts the American society. According to the statistics noted by UNODC (2011), about 340 tons of heroin is currently consumed all over the world every year while an annual discharge into the global market of heroin ranges from 430 tons to 450 tons as represented by the seizures. 50 tons of this quantity are yielded by the Lao PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Democratic Republic and the opium retrieved from Myanmar whereas the Afghan opium produces about 380 tons of morphine and heroin. Of the 380 tons, only 5 tons of heroin are consumed by the Afghanis and the rest is supplied to countries far and wide all over the world via routes in the neighboring countries. UNODC (2011) also shares information regarding the routes through which heroin is smuggled to the world from Afghanistan. Heroin is primarily trafficked through the northern and Balkan routes which connect Afghanistan with the large markets belonging to the Western Europe and the Russian Federation. The Balkan route links Afghanistan with Iran via Pakistan from where, the heroin is passed over to Turkey, Bulgaria and Greece in the South-East Europe. Its market value upon reaching the European market in the West is about $20 billion. Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Russia exist on the northern route. That marketÃ¢â¬â¢s size is worth $13 billion annually. Every year, US has to bear a cost of $70 billion as a result of the illegal trade of drugs (Finckenauer, Fuentes, and Ward, 2007). The chief smugglers of narcotics into US are the drug traffickers of Mexico. Most of the drugs are transferred from Mexico to US through the 2000 mile long border that the two share. Mexico, today is the main transporter of marijuana, heroin and methamphetamine to the US and also plays a cardinal role in the sale of
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Scholarship . I have included the prompt at the start of the first page. Please read the prompt to understand what they're looking for - Essay Example Through adversity, I pursued my desire to help others, learned all that I could from each of my healthcare experiences, and made positive contributions to society through community and volunteer work. Until the end of 1st grade, I went to a public school located in a part of Queens that was extremely diverseÃ¢â¬âmost of the other children had immigrant parents. It was a great environment to grow up in; however, I went to a new public school for 2nd grade through 6th grade because my family moved to part of Queens where my neighbors turned out to be racist and unwelcoming. For the first few weeks in our new neighborhood, eggs were thrown at our house daily. The teachers at the new public elementary school did several things to prevent me from succeeding and receiving the credit I was due for my hard work and talents. According to report cards and other criteria, I was supposed to have been the valedictorian, but because that honor was normally given to a white student, I was passed over. In 6th grade, my English teacher gave me a report card grade that did not match my test and class performance. So my mother, with her limited language skills, brought it to the teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. The teacher and principal both ignored my mother, and so my mother spoke with the district superintendant, who investigated and corrected my grade. In retaliation, however, the vice principal of the school barged into my French class one day and asked me to step out in the hallway, where he proceeded to tell me in a hostile manner that my teacher never wanted to see me again. As such, they had decided to pull me from the honors track mid-semester. Because my mother felt that I would further be harmed academically if she reported this, she decided it would be best for me to attend another public school. As a result, I had to move in with my paternal grandmother, who lived in a more diverse part of Queens, on the provision that I would provide
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Nineteen Eighty-FourÃ¢â¬ by George Orwell Essay Ã¢â¬Å"Nineteen Eighty-FourÃ¢â¬ is George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s unswervingly grim vision of a dystopian future. The author always intended it as more warning than prophecy, so that even though its title date has passed, its lessons about the dangers of conformity, mental coercion, and verbal deception retain their validity and relevance. The novel depicts a world divided into three totalitarian superpowers that are constantly at war with one another: Oceania, dominated by the former United States; Eurasia, dominated by Western Europe; and Eastasia, dominated by China and Japan. Since the novel belongs to the genre of the dystopia, a negative Utopia, much of its content is necessarily involved in describing Oceanian societyÃ¢â¬ânot only in the features of its everyday life, much of which reflects British life in 1948 (a year whose inverted numbers may have suggested the novelÃ¢â¬â¢s title), but also in detailed explanations of the historical origins of Ingsoc and Oceania, as well as its official language, Newspeak. Discussion A key ingredient in this chilling documentation of eroding human freedom is its depiction of a corrupted language, Ã¢â¬Å"Newspeak,Ã¢â¬ OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s brilliant rendering of that degraded language of politicians and sophists which hides rather then reveals truth. (Orwell, 19) Orwell, rather clumsily in the view of some critics, gives much of this information in the form of a book-within-a-book, the supposed handbook of the revolutionaries, and an appendix to the novel itself about Newspeak. The purpose of Newspeak was to drastically reduce the number of words in the English language in order to eliminate ideas that were deemed dangerous and, most importantly, seditious to the totalitarian dictator, Big Brother and the Party. Thought crime, the mere act of thinking about ideas like Freedom or Revolution, was punishable by torture and brainwashing. Newspeak was the sinister answer. A character in 1984 describes it succinctly: Do not you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? In the end, we shall make thought crime literally impossible because there will be no words in which to express it. The whole climate of thought will be different. In fact, there will be no thought as we understand it now. Is our real world today, at the beginning of the new millennium, so very different on a fundamental level from what Orwell predicted? There have been countless refutations of the 1984 dystopia: Totalitarianism is on the wane, Communism is dead, there is more prosperity, more community, more freedom than ever before. (Orwell, 37) Arguably, on a geo-political level, the global information economy has promoted the causes of peace and freedom, preventing potentially worse atrocities and repression in hotspots such as China and the Balkans. The bottom line is: you have no freedom, no power, you feel no need or desire for freedom or power, and, whats worse you do not even know that you do not have it. Analysis Critics of every aspect along the political spectrum, no matter what their views about the validity of OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s social analysis in Ã¢â¬Å"Nineteen Eighty-FourÃ¢â¬ , agree on one thing: Considered politically and historically, Ã¢â¬Å"Nineteen Eighty-FourÃ¢â¬ is one of the most important books of the twentieth century. The bleakness of its vision of a totalitarian society became a profound warning, and OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s accuracy was attested by dissidents in Eastern Europe and Russia both before and after the dissolution of the Soviet empire; Orwell, said a Russian philosopher, Ã¢â¬Å"understood the soul, or soullessnessÃ¢â¬ of Soviet life. Not only did the words Ã¢â¬Å"NewspeakÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"doublethinkÃ¢â¬ enter the English language but Russians refer to the Novoyaz of Communist Party language. (Orwell, 67) Some critics have pointed out that another layer of meaning exists within the novel. They connect OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s dissection of Oceanian society to his portrayal of his depressing and unhappy preparatory school days, which he discussed in his essay Ã¢â¬Å"Such, Such Were the JoysÃ¢â¬ (1952). Young English boys were removed from the warmth and security of their families, mini-societies governed by love and respect, and hurled into a world dominated by fear, repression, and an all-pervading sense of guilt. There, Orwell was imprisoned Ã¢â¬Å"not only in a hostile world but in a world of good and evil where the rules were such that it was actually not possible for me to keep them. Ã¢â¬ In such a society, rebellion or even dissent becomes almost impossible, and even personal relationships are viewed with hostility and suspicion by the ruling Ã¢â¬Å"class,Ã¢â¬ that is, the masters and proprietors of the school. (Orwell, 81) Conclusion As a true anti-utopian novel, one in which the horrors of totalitarianism are amply illustrated, Ã¢â¬Å"Nineteen Eighty-FourÃ¢â¬ serves as a poignant reminder of the preciousness of free thought and an open society and whatever the author has predicted in this novel has one way or the other turned out to be true. Works Cited Orwell, George (1949). Ã¢â¬Å"Nineteen Eighty-FourÃ¢â¬ . New York: Harcourt, Brace Co. pg 15-129.
Friday, November 15, 2019
The Rule Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When one turns eighteen years old they are looked at, by many, as an adult. They can vote, probably stay out later, receive more responsibilities because now those responsibilities can be handled. They will soon leave home and start a journey to college. They will be on their own, free to make their own decisions. They will rely on no one but themselves. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If we are given in college the freedom to do as we please then why are their rules when we get there? I am not talking about drinking, or smoking in the rooms. Or how much noise we can make after a certain hour. Colleges have to be strict on those issues because they can be unsafe to the individual or people around them. By keeping the noise down we are only being considerate to other people. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The rule that I feel is ridiculous is the visitation rule. Why can a guy be in a girls room all day, or a girl be in a guys room all day, but must leave at night? Their is no harm being done if he or she stays. If your roommate doesn't mind then their shouldn't be a problem. If we are told that we are responsible enough to go and live away from home, then why does it matter who we live with? Why aren't we trusted when it comes to that issue? I feel that one should be trusted until one proves otherwise. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The rule may forbid boyfriends, girlfriends, or just friends to stay in a room, but why family members? Have a heart. Your family member drives all the way to your school to see you and they must sleep some where else, why? Didn't your brother or sister come to visit you in college? Didn't you want him or her to stay with you? If they were a younger sibling wouldn't it make you feel safer if they were by your side all night? Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Listen, I am not attacking your decision pertaining to this issue. I am simply asking reasonable questions and stating reasonable ideas on why I feel
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Explain how the poet has explored the importance of community to the sense of belonging. The poet powerfully explores community to achieving sense of belonging. The use of a personal pronoun in Ã¢â¬Å"my villageÃ¢â¬ provides the village context and proves a powerful sense of connection where he belongs. The power of community is highlighted through inclusive pronoun Ã¢â¬ ourÃ¢â¬ which connotes ownership and connection to the context. Poet makes clear importance of community to achieving sense of belonging. Identify two techniques and explain how they convey the importance of family to belonging. The importance of family to creating a sense of belonging is explored through literary techniques showcased in the magazine cover. On a connotative level the world family reinforces the idea of connection. The magazineÃ¢â¬â¢s name Ã¢â¬Å"family treeÃ¢â¬ is a metaphor for connection as trees have branches. The couple in the middle is given salience. The fact that they are kissing implies the importance of relationships and connection. From looking at the miscenscene we can see how the magazine cover portrays the importance of family to belonging. Analyse how Shona Jones establishes the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s place and her sense of belonging. The narrator explores the significance of place and its impact on a characters sense of belonging. Interrogative language in Ã¢â¬Å"you are married?Ã¢â¬ is positioning her as the other in this foreign country which is reinforced by her admission of this being a Muslim country. This contributes to her feeling of alienation and lack of connection. In Ã¢â¬Å"songs to singÃ¢â¬ ¦and they kept me companyÃ¢â¬ , music is personified to keep company. It provides a connection to home. This connection is highlighted by a contrast with disconnection which is reinforced by connotations of homesick. The singing she hears when she is homesick is heard again when she has established a sense of connection in the new country. Reflecting on sound shows the cyclical nature of text and hence the cyclical nature of belonging. It demonstrates that familiarity of place breeds confidence. From the literary techniques in Ã¢â¬ËThe SingingÃ¢â¬â¢ we can see how Jones establishes the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s p lace and her sense of belonging.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Executive Summary Delta airline has a long history whose roots begin at the year 1924.This airline has grown to become one of the largest airlines serving the United States of America and also majority of the world through its international routes. The aim of this paper is to see the history of the airline together with its financial position with concentration on the various strategies the company has implemented to reach where it is right now. The paper will also include various suggestions to the airline to help it to grow further. Delta airlines began in the year 1924 but during that time it was known as Huff Daland Dusters. This was the first aerial crop dusting which had its headquarters in Georgia. The following year, the company moved its headquarters to Louisiana. The directors of the company were B.R Coad and Collett Woolman.Huff Daland went on its first international route and that was to begin its services in Peru which brought in enough money and increase in purchasing power. The year 192 8 gave birth to what is known as Delta Airlines today. Furthermore, the year 1930 came with a major setback to the airline. Delta failed to secure a commercial airmail contract and therefore suffered major losses which forced the airline to suspend passenger service. As time went by, the year 1934 seemed to be the year for Delta Airlines as they secured a low-bid contract for the new Route 33 airmail service between Dallas and Charleston, South Carolina, via Atlanta .The airline also resumed passenger services that year. The following years were very successful periods for Delta airlines as it managed to spread its wings to various states around the United States and it also managed to purchase airlines such as Chicago airlines and Southern Air Airlines. As the jet era began, Delta Airlines added jetliners to modernize their fleet and fleet in the 1960s, following the purchase of the Douglas 8 that entered service in 1959. The same year also provided a new image for Delta as it redesigned its logoÃ to what is present today. In 1970, Delta became an all jet airliner. The airline continued buying out its competitors and this time it was North East airline that was purchased in the year 1972. The great reign of Delta Airlines reached another milestone in the year 1975 when the launched the first airline called Delta Air Express which guaranteed air express service with high priority and guaranteed cargo services. As the deregulation act came into place, Delta launched its first transatlantic flight from Atlanta to London under the leadership of the new CEO David Garrett which followed another expansion to Frankfurt the following year. In 1979, Delta celebrated its 50th year of service with flights to Frankfurt and it became the first airline to board one million passengers in one city in one month. In addition to the above achievements, the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s brought mixed feelings at the company. With the development of computers, Delta managed to begin computer based reservation systems and launch its first frequent flyer program. But the airline suffered losses in the year 1982.Employees then took payroll deductions to raise about $30 million to purchase the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s first Boeing 767 which was named Ã¢â¬Å"The spirit of DeltaÃ¢â¬ in 1982.Between the year of 1984-1987, Delta merged with several regionals and partnered with some to increase its services to Hawaii. It also became the fourth largest carrier in the U.S and fifth in the world with its services to Portland, Oregon and Tokyo in 1987 under the new chairman and CEO; Ronald Allen. The airline expanded its operations to Asia in 1988. As Delta Airlines continued soar higher, the year 1991 was no different. The airline purchased all of Pan-AmÃ¢â¬â¢s Trans-Atlantic routes and shuttles hence making it the largest acquisition of flights in airline history and also making Delta a global carrier. Apart from making profits and expanding its routes, Delta Airlines also fulfilled its social and cooperate responsibility by painting one of its aircrafts with the Olympic flag. It was then named the official airline of the Olympics 1995 Olympics games .It also received an award for the best major carrier for long and short haul flights. The airline also took a major step which till today has changed the history of the airline industry and that was making all its flights NON-SMOKING. Furthermore, between the years 1996-1999 had various achievements for Delta such as being named the global airline of the year and the best managed airline. It also installed automatic defibrillators on board aircrafts and purchased modern aircraftsÃ such as Boeing 777.To meet the demand of low cost travelers, Delta announced its low cost airline Ã¢â¬Å"Delta ExpressÃ¢â¬ with services from Orlando FL. In 1997, Delta was the first airline to board more than 100 million passengers in a year. The year 20th century started with the airline reporting losses for the first time in 6 years during the year 2001.This was because of the attacks on the world trade center which forced the government to shut down the US airspace for 2 days. The following few years saw a lot of changes in terms of marketing techniques, new check in systems and also few code sharing with the regional carriers to enhance the airlines services. But the year 2005 started being a year that the airline would face what can be termed as the most difficult phase in their entire history. Delta filed chapter 11 for reorganization under the bankruptcy code. The airline later managed to expand it routes as early as November 2005 back to Latin America and Caribbean routes. The airline has since then managed to grow rapidly implementing various new methods of check in or purchasing tickets. With modern fleets, international alliance and great service, Delta has gone to become one of the best airlines in the world and has won major awards in the 20th century such as best airline website, Best airline lounge and Best frequent Flyer program. History of Airline Industry The airline industry first started the transportation of passengers in October of 1925. There was an improvement in planes with pressurization in 1949. In September of 1953, the first jet passenger plane gets introduced. The FAA was first established in August of 1958. In February of 1974, the first large body planes with multiple aisle were introduced. A little over two years later, the first supersonic travel was introduced in August of 1976 with the Concorde Tu-144. History of Delta Airlines Delta has close to 90 years of history that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t always involve passenger travel. In 1924, a crop dusting company called The Huff Daland Dusters was founded. Four years later, Huff Daland Dusters merged with Delta and kept the name of Delta. In 1941, Delta headquarters moves from Monroe to Atlanta. Delta gets its first stock traded on the New York Stock Exchange in 1957. DeltaÃ¢â¬â¢s first merge occurs in 1972 when it merged with Northeast airlines; this merge made them a major carrier in New York and Boston. This is alsoÃ the year that Delta started operating with the Boeing 727. In 1981, Delta Airlines launches its Frequent Flyer Program. Another merge happens a few years later in 1987 when Delta merged with Western Airlines. After this merge, Delta became the fourth largest U.S carrier and the fifth largest in the world. They also introduced some international travel in the same year. After years of pay and job cuts due to the major decline in airline travel after the September 11th attack, in September of 2005 Delta Airlines files for bankruptcy. In December of 2006, Delta files for a five year reorganization plan that would allow Delta to emerge from bankruptcy as a stand-alone company; which wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t approved until January of 2007. In 2008, Delta merged with Northwest Airlines which made Delta the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest airline. Corporate Strategy Delta Airlines corporate strategy puts major focus on its staff achieving its objectives. The company carries out this strategy by having the top management committed to making sure its employees are satisficed (Delta Air Lines Inc. 5). The company has formed this business culture because they have realized that by having a satisfied work force, their customers the needs and expectations will be handled in an effective manner (Nancy 3). As a direct result of to this corporate culture adapted by Delta, managers and employees have established solid professional relationships, and it is because of the implementation of this strategy that DeltaÃ¢â¬â¢s staff has been described as being an incredible work force (Data monitor 6). Also, Delta airline is able to provide their customers with high quality services due to their strategy of focusing on their employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction. Delta Airlines has provided its employees with good working terms and conditions, and it has also motivated its employees to provide high quality services by offering them financial awards, delta merchandise, gift cards, award banquets, and promotions (Delta Air Lines Inc. 3). Business Level Strategy The business level strategy of Delta Airlines places emphasis on customer service and/or service delivery. Delta Airlines is committed to its customers (Delta Air Lines Inc. 7), which means that its core business focus is to meet and satisfy their customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs and expectations. One of the most effective methods to achieving a competitive advantage is the companyÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ commitment to its customers (Nancy 1). Their business strategy has enabled Delta Airlines to provide its customers with the lowest fares possible within the market (Data monitor 5). The airlines fear ratings are clearly displayed at ticket counters and on their website, which has permitted Delta to provide their customers with adequate travel data in order for them to be able to easily make reservations and inquiries at their own convenience. Also, communicating effectively with their customers has helped DeltaÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with the market. The Airline rapidly communicates travel news, as well as diversions, delays, and cancelations notifications to its customers in order to ensure that they are not disappointed, and can make more informed decisions. DeltaÃ¢â¬â¢s SWOT Analysis Strengths Acquisition of NWA WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest mega carrier & flight network Pacific & Atlantic Ocean flight routes Employees SkyTeam & SkyMiles alliance Airport model Brand & History Opportunities Reduce operational cost & capacity Streamline operations & supply chain New value for money strategies Enhance the customer experience Customer retention initiatives Invest in new technologies Renegotiate lease & labor agreements Weaknesses Low on time rating Operating Cost Susceptibility to service disruptions Technological dependence for operations Differentiation Merger consolidation Threats Alternatives Competition Increased regulation Market environment Economy Fuel costs Crashes/Terrorism Strengths and Weaknesses Since the establishment of Delta Airlines, it can be considered an airline that has stayed in business despite its ups and downs. Although Delta has experienced many obstacles throughout its nearly 90 years of history, it continues to have many accomplishments that many other airlines do not have. One of the major points to Delta Airlines success is its ability to Ã¢â¬Å"help more than 160 million travelers get to places they want to go to each yearÃ¢â¬ as stated on the Delta Airlines website. Delta is assembled around many of its strengths one of those currently being Ã¢â¬Å"the largest airline in the world todayÃ¢â¬ according to the index on Delta Airlines website. One of the strong points in being one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest carriers today is having numerous hubs in major cities in the United States. Atlanta and Minneapolis are two of the biggest hubs of Delta Airline; some other cities include Cincinnati, Detroit, New York, and Memphis (Mutzabaugh, 2013). Having as many as 567 worldwide destinations in over 100 different countries allows an U.S. airline company to expand to different countries globally. Another strength Delta has is their superior customer service abilities. Their customer service is what helps Delta to be what it is today. The passenger service, a successful history of flight, and flying to different continents around the globe leads to Delta having one of the highest gross revenues in the airline industry. In 2010 Delta earned profits of more than $590 million and $1 billion in 2012, this is a massive improvement from the $1.2 billion beating it had in 2009. As the each year went by revenue rose about 4% between 2011 and 2012, accomplishing a remarkable high of $36.7 billion (Hoovers Inc., 2013). Delta Airlines has been recognized to be the global air travelÃ markets best mega carrier, and this is proven by the fact that Delta operates over 5000 flights on a daily basis (Delta Air Lines Inc. 8). Both their corporate and business strategies are highly innovative, and as a result of these strategies, and with the aid of their employees, that they have been able to provide high quality air travel services and become a major player in the market. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s high quality and efficient air travel services also demonstrate its business strengths. Delta earned $22, 687 of revenue in 2008 due to their acquisition of the North West Airlines operations, which compared to the previous year amounted to a growth of 18.5%. (Delta Air Lines Inc. 6). It is safe to say that no airline is without flaws and there are many weaknesses within Delta Airlines itself. Being the best in the business doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t youÃ¢â¬â¢re your own drawbacks. Along with being a top brand in the airline industry means that you have competitors. One of DeltaÃ¢â¬â¢s main competitors in the airline industry is United Airlines which is rated the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most admired airline on Fortune magazineÃ¢â¬â¢s 2012 airline industry list, the industry leading loyalty program that provides more opportunities to earn and redeem miles worldwide, and also the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most comprehensive global route network stated on UnitedÃ¢â ¬â¢s website. DeltaÃ¢â¬â¢s Airlines has significant weakness which pose as challenges to their success, such as the 2000 job cuts and 20% capacity reduction they have undergone can defiantly be characterized as weaknesses. However, due to the 2009 economic grapples such the cutbacks were necessary in-order to reducing the high costs associated with operations (Data monitor 4). And compared to its main competitors, DeltaÃ¢â¬â¢s on-time ratings for are comparatively low. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to note that Delta Airlines services have not achieved comprehensive differentiation (Data monitor 9). Another major issue that could affect the performance of Delta Airlines in the market is the possibility of employee strikes. External Environment Currently within the United States, the Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO) market is exceptionally strong, and it is predicted that within the next three years the Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul market will increase over 10% (Nancy 3). Such evidence validates the fact that there indeed are opportunities within the external environment which Delta Airlines could useÃ to their benefit by decrease the costs associated with repairing and maintaining its serving fleet of aircraft. Furthermore, due to an increase in the use of online marketing in the air travel market, air traveler are much more aware of the numerous air travel services and prices being offered by the many travel companies and airliners that exist in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world. A clear example is how advancements in technology can be a major influencing factor is illustrated in the fact that customers of air travel services in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world have the capability to conduct a real time, reliable, and efficient compar isons of all the different rates being offered, and the ability to simply and conveniently schedule a flight reservation online (Nancy 4). This is true about both the air travel market here in The United States and abroad. Indeed, the current external environment offers Delta Airlines the opportunity to achieve a competitive advantage, and become a leader in the air travel market by executing of its customer focused strategy. On a Global scale, the airline industry has witnessed significant development and growth of which is attributed to advances in air travel technology, and alternative fuel sources. This worldwide growth will give Delta Airlines the chance to become a leader in the global travel industry by implementation of their effective business strategies (Nancy 1). Although flue cost and air travel technological advancements are factors that have created new opportunity for Delta Airlines; nevertheless, the ever rising costs fuel, and the high level competition in the air travel market and are major threats to the success of the airlines. Recommendations Delta has claimed many breaks through from the company establishment date. Research and development over the duration of time has given Delta market presence in the industry over the years along with a deeply rooted foundation. Technology enhancements would complement Deltas competitive position; this action would bring excitement to the airline industry that would bring investors to the table. Broadening the profits, Delta is becoming a leader in the market with something truly innovative to offer customers. Deltas progress statically is doing well, shown in last yearÃ¢â¬Ës third Qtr. ending with a surplus of 56.67% currently outpacing its historical five yearÃ pace. Delta currently is seeking to reduce the loan rate on a pricey $1.34 billion loan from outstanding lenders currently. At this rate, Delta should have enough capital to venture out and achieve something great to autonomously boast in the industry in the near future. Conclusion Delta Airlines has established itself as a leading carrier and a great company. In order to accommodate specific areas which would enable Delta to increase their efficiency and profitability they have modernized their business strategy. Managers at the Delta airlines consider the motivation, training, and general well fear of their staff to be of high importance. Clear improvement in services demanded by air travelers such as the addition of Wi-Fi service and investing in matters such as the renovation of cabin is sure to be increase customer Satisfaction and boost demand for Deltas services by customers. Delta expanded in both the regional and international markets by merging with Northwest airlines. The numerous profitable markets that can be penetrated and/or expanded present Opportunities for Delta airlines. Things such as staggering economy, government uncertainty, and major weather changes present threats to Delta. Delta marketing method and business strategy are the reason it is one of the best carriers globally. References Data monitor. Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Air Lines, Inc.Ã¢â¬ Delta Air Lines, Inc. SWOT Analysis (2011): 1-11 Delta Air Lines Inc. Ã¢â¬Å"Delta Air Lines, Inc. SWOT Analysis.Ã¢â¬ Delta Air Lines, Inc. SWOT Analysis (2013): 1-9 Delta, P. K. (2011, FEBRUARY). Delta history. Retrieved from http://news.delta.com/index.php?s=18&cat=39 Mark Wilkinson, retrieved on November 29, 2013 from http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/3379 Mutzabaugh, Ben. (2013, October 7). Retaliation? United adds flights to Delta hubs. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/story/todayinthesky/2013/10/07/retaliation-united-adds-flights-to-delta-hubs/2935925/ Nancy, Gondo. Ã¢â¬Å"Will Delta Air Lines Top Profit Forecasts Once Again?Ã¢â¬ InvestorÃ¢â¬â¢s Business Daily 12 Nov. 2013: 1-5 Hoovers Inc. (2013). Delta Air Lines, Inc. Financial Performance. Retrieved from http://subscriber.hoovers.com/H/company360/fulldescription.html?companyId=104 48000000000
Friday, November 8, 2019
Simple or Progressive Perfect Forms There are two types of perfect tenses; simple perfect tenses (present perfect, past perfect and future perfect) and progressive perfect tenses (present perfect progressive, past perfect progressive and future perfect progressive). The perfect forms are generally used to represent something that has happened up to another point in time. For example: Present Peter has visited Paris twice. (In his life, up until now)Jane has been playing tennis for two hours (until now) Past They had lived in New York for 3 years before they moved to Seattle. (up to the time they moved to Seattle)She had been studying for 4 hours when he arrived. (The four hours directly before he arrived) Future We will have finished the course by this time next year. (up to this time a year from now)I will have been working for 2 hours by the time he arrives tomorrow. (the two hours before he arrives tomorrow) So, what are the differences between the simple and progressive forms of the perfect? Well, first of all, remember to keep in mind the progressive is only used with ACTION verbs (see last weeks feature for examples of non-action or state verbs). Another important difference is that we use the simple perfect forms to express finished QUANTITIES and the progressive perfect forms when we are stressing the continuous duration of a specific action mentioned. Now, lets take a look at the specific differences between the two forms: Present Perfect Progressive Recent activity: to emphasize the recency of a past activity. we often use lately or recently : Shes been working hard recently Emphasis on the duration or length of an activity : Jack has been painting for 4 hours. Recently finished activity with a present result : Ive been working in the garden, thats why my hands are so dirty. No difference in meaning. Often the present perfect progressive and the present perfect can have the same meaning. This is often the case with verbs of living, occupation or vocation) : Ive been living in Leghorn for 3 years. OR Ive lived in Leghorn for 3 years. Present Perfect Indefinite time in the past (experience). Emphasis is on the completed action at an indefinite time in the past. : Susans written 3 books. Emphasis on QUANTITY : Ive read 300 pages of Tom Smiths latest book. Duration from past to present (see #4 of present perfect progressive) : Peter has worked for that company for 5 years. Here is an excellent example of the difference between the two forms when referring to duration of an activity as compared to quantity: Hes been driving for 6 hours. Hes driven 320 miles. Past Perfect Progressive Past perfect progressive is used to express CONTINUOUS activity up to a specific point of time in the past. Example: They had been waiting for 2 hours before their friends finally arrived. Past Perfect Past perfect is used to express FINISHED activity before a specific point of time in the past. Example: He had already eaten when his wife came home. FutureÃ Perfect Progressive Future perfect progressive is used to emphasize the length of time or duration of an event occurring before and up to another event in the future. : By the time they arrive, we will have been waiting for 4 hours! To emphasize the duration of an activity. : John will have been studying for 6 years by the time he finishes his exam. Future Perfect Future perfect is used to refer to an event completed before another future event or time. : By the time Mary finishes this course, she will have taken 26 exams. To emphasize not how long something has taken, but that the action is completed. : By the time he retires, he will have worked for 36 years. Here is a little quiz to check your knowledge: They a) have been working b) have worked in the garage, thats why their clothes are greasy.She a) had met b) had been meeting John before he came to work here.By the time the letter arrives, a) I will have left b) I will have been leaving.When Karen telephoned, they a) had been studying b) had studied for two hours.Im tired. I a) have just finished b) have just been finishing my homework.Peter a) has been reading b) has read 3 books by Hemingway.By the time we finish, we a) will have painted b) will have been painting for 4 hours.I made sure that I a) had learned b) had been learning Italian well before I left for Rome.She a) has known b) has been knowing John for 10 years.They a) have thought of you b) have been thinking of you a lot recently. Answer Key aaaaabbaab
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
What Was the Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of four Islamic caliphates and was founded in Arabia after the Prophet Muhammads death. The Umayyads ruled the Islamic world from 661 to 750 C.E. Their capital was in the city of Damascus; the founder of the caliphate, Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, had long been the governor of Syria. Originally from Mecca, Muawiya named his dynasty the Sons of Umayya after a common ancestor he shared with the Prophet Muhammad. The Umayyad family had been one of the major combatant clans in the Battle of Badr (624 CE), the decisive battle between Muhammad and his followers on the one hand, and the powerful clans of Mecca on the other. Muawiya triumphed over Ali, the fourth caliph, and Muhammads son-in-law, in 661, and officially founded the new caliphate. The Umayyad Caliphate became one of the major political, cultural, and scientific centers of the early medieval world. Ã The Umayyads also began the process of spreading Islam throughout Asia, Africa, and Europe. They moved into Persia and Central Asia, converting the rulers of key Silk Road oasis cities such as Merv and Sistan. Ã They also invaded what is now Pakistan, beginning the process of conversion in that area that would continue for centuries. Umayyad troops also crossed Egypt and brought Islam to the Mediterranean coast of Africa, from whence it would disperse south across the Sahara along caravan routes until much of West Africa became Muslim. Finally, the Umayyads waged a series of wars against the Byzantine Empire based in what is now Istanbul. They sought to overthrow this Christian empire in Anatolia and convert the region to Islam; Anatolia would eventually convert, but not for several centuries after the collapse of the Umayyad Dynasty in Asia. Between 685 and 705 CE, the Umayyad Caliphate reached its apex of power and prestige. Its armies conquered areas from Spain the west to Sindh in what is now India. One after another, additional Central Asian cities fell to the Muslim armies - Bukhara, Samarkand, Khwarezm, Tashkent, and Fergana. This rapidly expanding empire had a postal system, a form of banking based on credit, and some of the most beautiful architecture ever seen. Just when it seemed that the Umayyads truly were poised to rule the world, however, disaster struck. In 717 CE, the Byzantine emperor Leo III led his army to a crushing victory over the Umayyad forces, which had been besieging Constantinople. After 12 months trying to break through the citys defenses, the hungry and exhausted Umayyads had to retreat empty-handed back to Syria. A new caliph, Umar II, tried to reform the financial system of the caliphate by increasing the taxes on Arab Muslims to the same level as taxes on all other non-Arab Muslims. This caused a huge outcry among the Arab faithful, of course, and caused a financial crisis when they refused to pay any taxes at all. Finally, renewed feuding broke out among the various Arab tribes around this time, leaving the Umayyad system tottering. It managed to press on for a few more decades. Umayyad armies got as far into western Europe as France by 732, where they were turned back at the Battle of Tours. In 740, the Byzantines dealt the Umayyads another shattering blow, driving all Arabs from Anatolia. Five years later, the simmering feuds between the Qays and Kalb tribes of Arabs erupted into full-scale war in Syria and Iraq. In 749, religious leaders proclaimed a new caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah, who became the founder of theÃ Abbasid Caliphate. Under the new caliph, members of the old ruling family were hunted down and executed. One survivor, Abd-ar-Rahman, escaped to Al-Andalus (Spain), where he founded the Emirate (and later Caliphate) of Cordoba. The Umayyad caliphate in Spain survived until 1031.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The Arab experience in adapting to American society - Essay Example I was very happy when I was accepted in the UNC to finish my studies there, I had been hoping very much that would be admitted there because I had heard a lot of good things about the university, I have never met anyone who has been to the school but in the internet people say it is a good place. I hope it will be good for me so I can finish my studies in America before I go back to my country so I can continue with my dream of becoming a great general like my father. I also am glad to be in the university because that means I will be studying with other students who are good in speaking English as their mother tongue so I will be able to learn how to speak it very well from them. Back home, my main hobbies were playing football and taking trips and travelling, I used to spend a lot of time driving my parents car and even went outside our town to explore, sometimes I could use a bike. In since primary school I have played soccer with my friends and I spend a lot of time in the field, I play the position of a defender. Back home, we watch American football on TV and I think it is very good, I hope I can get a chance to play, because of my army training I am sure I can be able to learn the game quickly. To me the chance to study in a great American university is very important because I have always wanted to study here, when I was young we would read textbooks showing big cities and roads in America and I would say that I wanted to go and visit one day and maybe study.Because of that, coming here to me was like a golden chance.... run many kilometers in the hot sun and practice matching for a long time, however since I wanted to be like my father, I persevered and I was able to become successful. However I decided even if I wanted to become a general like my father, I should travel and acquire more knowledge which I could use in life later as well as their skills not limited to military ones. Because of this, I moved to the United States after I got a scholarship and in January 2012 I came here to America and registered in Fort Collins where I studied English so I could improve my communication and reading skills as well as be able to study other subjects in America. This was however very difficult for me since Arabic was my first language which I had spoken all my life and it was very different from English, and writing and learning the alphabet and letters of English was hard and it took me almost on and a half years to finish the course and even if my English is still not very good I practice every day and I talk to a lot of my Americans friends so I can learn it from them. This is because the best method to learn a language is not by going to school but by using it through speaking to people who understand it well. I discovered that in America most people are christens but very many also have other religions and some do not have religion at all. In my home country, this is very different because almost everybody I know is a Muslim, I was taught since I was a child to love god and respect other people and their faith even it is different from mine. This is easy in America because people do not treat me differently because I am a Muslim, in fact everyday even here I go to a mosque every day for prayer, this is enjoyable because apart from prayers I can meet other Muslims and we can talk and
Friday, November 1, 2019
Application of E-Business in Saudi Arabia - Research Paper Example Factors that affect the adoption of the technology in Saudi Arabia include the financial position of the business, the nature or characteristics of the business organization and the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ acceptance and perception of e-business. Some of the recommendations for the research are that the governments should use standardized methods to implement ICT projects. Regular training and empowerment workshops should be conducted to ensure that there is no resistance to change. Table of Contents Application of E-Business in Saudi Arabia 1 Running head: E-BUSINESS 1 1 Abstract 1 E-Business 5 Rationale 5 Project Topics 6 Research Methods 7 Expected Findings and Implications 7 Annotated Bibliography 8 Introduction 12 Rationale 13 Specific Topic 13 Research Purpose 14 Hypotheses 14 Literature Review 14 History and Background 14 Exceptions 15 Solutions 16 Discussion 17 Barriers to E-Business 17 Motivators to Commerce 18 Methodology 19 Research Purpose 19 Data Collection Method 19 Survey In strument 20 Population, Sampling Strategy and Sample 20 Data Analysis 21 Results 21 Implications of the Findings 26 Limitations 27 Conclusion 27 Recommendations 28 Final Thoughts 28 Questionnaire 34 E-Business E-business (electronic business) describes the act of a business utilizing electronic network in the improvement of business processes or systems. ... The data collecting tool will be administration of questionnaires which will be conducted through various means such as e-mail, post and fax. However, face-to-face surveys will be conducted although reference will be made to questionnaires. The collected data from the tables will be analyzed through application of the Microsoft Excel and recommendations offered based on the results. The application of e-business among Saudi Arabian companies is expected to be low. Factors that affect the adoption of the technology in Saudi Arabia include the financial position of the business, the nature or characteristics of the business organization, and employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ acceptance and perception of the of e-business. Some of the benefits of e-business include: promotes globalization, reduction in the costs involved in running of the business, improvement of the supply chain, portrays flexibility in operation hours, enhances procurement process and not subject to city laws and permits. Rationale A lthough e-business is currently applied globally, Saudi Arabia still lags behind in adoption of the technology. Although the country possesses the most advanced and the fastest growing ICT technology in the Arab region, the application of e-business has been adopted at a slow rate. Additionally, there is no detailed information on the adoption of E-commerce among most of the Saudi Arabians. According to Marcus, Wigham and Gould (2011), the Kingdom has registered a substantial population growth that can profitably adopt e-business and enhance the economic growth of the country. This research will rely on wide range of responses from employees in various organizations within Saudi Arabia. This will enable the identification of the