Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Einhorn asserts that 'democracy stops at the factory gates'. What are Essay

Einhorn asserts that 'democracy stops at the factory gates'. What are the limits to organisational democracy within market economies and what might a post-capitalist form of work organisation look like - Essay Example ; moreover, it has been noted that the limitation of democracy in the workplace has been out of the control of political leaders; current paper focuses on the examination of the aspects of democracy across organizations, or else, the organisational democracy. Through the research made on the existing literature, it has been proved that organisational democracy is reduced under the influence of the interests of employers; on the other hand, the need for salary has been proved, in most cases, to be stronger than the need for fairer conditions of work. In this context, the phrase of Eihorn that ‘democracy stops at the factory gates’ can be characterized as justified. However, the limitation of freedom in its various aspects cannot lead to the limitation of the fights for fair conditions of life; entrepreneurial interests need to be satisfied – at the level that each enterprise is based on the entrepreneur’s – or the shareholders – investment; how ever, a balance should exist between the interests of all parties in the workplace; the succession of the capitalist (by a post-capitalist) form of work organisation can be considered as necessary; this succession has been started; the terms of this transition and the characteristics of the post-capitalist form of work organisation are also explained in this paper. In order to understand the role and the characteristics of national democracy it would be necessary to refer primarily to its definition; in accordance with Salamon (2000, p.147) ‘organisational democracy involves an interrelationship between participative democracy (membership involvement in policy formulation and decision making) and representational democracy (election of representatives to positions of ‘government’ or leadership)’; organizational democracy can refer to all aspects of organizational activities being depended on the organizational environment (internal and external) and the country’s political system and social ethics. The

Monday, October 28, 2019

Artificial Intelligence in Business Applications

Artificial Intelligence in Business Applications Artificial Intelligence and Robotics Business functions that can/cannot be automated INTRODUCTION Computer systems today are a part of almost all businesses; this is because they provide us, along with the added use of the Internet, with a variety of means that made business operations easier, productivity higher, and communication processes faster. Computers and the programs (or the software applications that are installed on them) along with the robotic systems do a great amount of the tasks that were previously performed by the employees and/or workers themselves. This transformation, towards an automated work environment, saved businesses a lot of unwanted expenses, a lot of time, and caused profits to increase steadily. Computers substituted, in different business structures, classical machines and tools, such as the calculator, the fax, the telephone, the photocopier and many more. The automation of different business functions led many organisations and companies to a higher level in what concerns production and management. But the point that should be understood is that even though many processes and functions related to businesses and organisations have been automated, there are still many aspects that are not, or that cannot be, automated for a wide range of reasons. BUSINESS FUNCTIONS The main objective of any business is to achieve success. To be able to reach success, an organisation needs to have an effective structure because any entity depends exclusively on two factors which are management and use of information. An efficient use of information systems can allow an easier and faster access to data that are essential for the workflow and for the quality of that work and, therefore, can assist the management in performing its duties in the best possible manner and in making the right decisions at the right times. In order to achieve such objectives, specific business functions should be established and specific tasks should be performed. Every kind of business and every organisation, depending on the nature of their operations, the products or services that are provided by them, their geographic location, and depending on the management and production schools that they relate to, have different business functions, but there are certain generic functions that apply to all kinds of businesses all over the world. These functions are usually general management, information management, operations management, marketing, finance and accounting, and human resources. Lan and Unhelkar (2005) identify the various generic business functions by stating that they are the function of Management and Administration which is the department whose tasks are to â€Å"corporate resources, corporate image, quality in all aspects, industrial relations, stakeholders relations, productivity, [and] promotion,† the function of Human Resources that should deal with â€Å"job analysis, position classification, employee training, employee selection, employee auditing and promotion† in addition to other related tasks, the function of Finance and Accounts that is responsible for â€Å"the capital operations required by the entire enterprise activities the funds required by management, administration, sales, marketing, human resources, [and] purchasing,† the function of Purchase and Procurement, the function of Sales and Marketing, and the function of Customer Care or Customer Support. According to another source, â€Å"business functions are universal and apply to every type of business. The most essential business functions are marketing, operations (production of goods and services), finance, and human resource management† (Plunkett, Attner, and Allen 2005). Here, we find a view according to which all functions are the same regardless of the type of business. The main question is to understand whether the above mentioned functions can be in whole or in part automated and/or computerised. In other words, can all the tasks concerning the business functions be transferred to intelligent electronic or robotic agents reaching the level of efficiency and proficiency in which humans are capable of performing them? AUTOMATION AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE In order to understand if all (or only some) business functions can be automated, it is important to understand the meaning of the concept itself. According to MSN Encarta (2005) automation is a â€Å"system of manufacture designed to extend the capacity of machines to perform certain tasks formerly done by humans, and to control sequences of operations without human intervention. The term automation has also been used to describe non-manufacturing systems in which programmed or automatic devices can operate independently or nearly independently of human control. In the fields of communications, aviation, and astronautics, for example, such devices as automatic telephone switching equipment, automatic pilots, and automated guidance and control systems are used to perform various operations much faster or better than could be accomplished by humans.† For us to reach such a system, a certain computerised aspect should be developed; an aspect which enables machines to execute given tasks according to the desired level. For such an objective, experts and programmers should be able to produce information systems that possess some of the characteristics of intelligence; this is why such systems are referred to as systems of artificial intelligence, or simply intelligent machines; in other words, computerised systems that are pre-programmed to perform a certain mission with the same level of accuracy of a trained human being. It is the science of creating machines that are intelligent, and in a more specific context, intelligent computer software-programs functioning according to the present hardware. It attempts to comprehend the mechanisms in which human intelligence works and then imitates it in the way the prospective intelligent machines should work, avoiding the limitations of biologically related weaknesses. Bailey (1992) describes his understanding of intelligence as the ability to reason or have a logical thinking, and to have an effect on the environment; this will require a good level of knowledge that should be acquired. To be able to simulate humans, machines should possess the capability of understanding the world. Computers, or intelligent machines, should be knowledgeable on a level that is even deeper and more detailed than we are Depending on knowledge, intelligent machines (or computers or robots) will be in a position to answer any of our questions, they could perform any task efficiently, and they can solve complex and difficult problems much more rapidly. Bailey also states that another important feature that intelligent machines should have is connectivity to each other all around the world through the use of networks, which will make it even easier for them to gain more knowledge and to communicate it to one another. Then there is another feature that is the ability to establish an effective level of communication between intelligent computers and humans through both written and verbal means and not through commands typed through a keyboard and a screen. Finally Bailey puts the physical qualities, such as vision, hearing, as the final of his desired intelligent computer or robot through the use of visual and auditory sensors similar to, or better than, those of humans. AUTOMATING BUSINESS FUNCTIONS The organisational structure is the setting that defines all the departments of the organisation, identifies the responsibilities and duties of each department, regulates the relationship between the various departments and explains how each of them should interact with the others in the way that guarantees the achievement of the desired outcome. As Clarke and Anderson explain, â€Å"an organizational role is defined as a set of functions together with a set of obligations and authorities. The same human or artificial agent can play several roles† [within that specific organisation] (187). The various tools of Information Technology can assist the company in gathering, elaborating, processing, storing/documenting, and distributing all the information that is needed for planning, decision making, and control. The use of computers and the simplicity they offer are important elements in what concerns the enhancement of all the mentioned processes. This fact explains how information technology influences the way in which organisations tend to arrange the tasks and processes within them. Ross (2003) explains that â€Å"information technology (IT) has progressively become key link integrating the business enterprise and its logistics capabilities with its customers and supplies Simply, the organization’s ability to create, collect, assimilate, access, and transfer information must be in alignment with the velocity of the activities necessary to execute effectively supplier, customer service, logistics and financial processes.† As mentioned earlier, many aspects related to the various tasks of businesses are now computerised and/or automated. Accounting and financial processes, for example, are not done only on paper as they once used to be; instead complete computer systems that rely on software applications are those that elaborate, document, communicate, and distribute the various pieces of information among different employees working in different departments. Another example is that related to the processes of sales and marketing which depend heavily on the Internet and the means of communication offered by it. â€Å"Sales force automation modules in CRM [Customer Relation Management] systems help sales staff increase their productivity by focusing sales efforts on the most profitable customers, those who are good candidates for sales and services. CRM systems provide sales prospect and contact information, product information, product configuration capabilities, and sales quote generation capabilitie s† (Laudon and Laudon 2006). For what concerns the accounts and finance function, there are clear indications that many of its tasks have been computerised. â€Å"Large and medium-sized businesses are using ASPs [Application Service Providers] for enterprise systems, sales force automation, or financial management, and small businesses are using them for functions such as invoicing, tax calculations, electronic calendars, and accounting† (Laudon and Laudon 2006). Another form of automation in this context is presented by Sanghvi (2007) as he states that â€Å"online technologies have enabled payroll services to become a popular way for accounting firms to improve client service, enhance loyalty, and gain incremental business Many small business owners turn to their accountant for back-office services while they focus on growing their businesses,† and this means that, through online systems, they can provide the external accountants with all the information needed in order to produce their legally a ccurate and acceptable financial documentation. Concerning human resources management, there are certain computerised systems that are capable of performing the main parts of the process that are related to that function. Torres-Coronas and Arias-Oliva (2005) refer to what they define as e-recruiting; which consists of the â€Å"practices and activities carried on by the organization that utilizes a variety of electronic means to fill open positions effectively and efficiently. The e-recruiting process consists of the following iterative steps: identification of hiring needs; submission of job requisition; approval of the job requisition via a job database; job posting on the Internet; online search of the job database by job seekers, online pre-screening/online self-assessment; submission of applications by applicants directly into an applicant database; online search of the applicant database for candidate selection; online evaluation of rà ©sumà ©/application; interviewing by recruiters/hiring managers; online pre-employment screening; and job offer and employment contract† Another example of a computerised business function, which is auditing, is presented by Caster and Verardo (2007): â€Å"The increasing prevalence of complex computer information systems and electronic data interchanges has made most business transactions electronic in nature Technological advances have altered not only the actual form of evidential matter required to be obtained by auditors, but also the competence of this evidence. Technology has had a significant impact on audit evidence, and existing auditing procedures could be improved in many ways.† The authors indicated that new technologically related regimes of audits have been created to automate the auditing process. Laudon and Laudon (2006) explain that certain businesses took enormous steps towards the automation of the entire processes related to their core activity: â€Å"The management of UPS decided to use automation to increase the ease of sending a package using UPS and of checking its delivery status, thereby reducing delivery costs and increasing sales revenues The technology supporting this system consists of handheld computers, barcode scanners, wired and wireless communications networks, desktop computers, UPS’s central computer, storage technology for the package delivery data, UPS inhouse package tracking software, and software to access the World Wide Web.† The author indicates that the various processes of UPS have improved substantially thanks to the computerisation and inter-connectivity of their functions. When we study the potentials of automation for what concerns business functions, it should be clearly stated that each function is a separate case with its own factors and qualities, which can allow or limit the possibilities of full computerisation of its different processes and tasks. Dorf and Kusiak (1994) state that almost every aspect of the manufacturing process can be automated: â€Å"Most manufacturing operations can be automated. Given the large number of manufacturing processes and assembly operations used in industry (the number is in the thousands) and the many possible ways in which any given operation can be automated.† The authors give different examples of automated systems, such as the Automated Production Lines (which is â€Å"a production system consisting of a series of automated workstations connected by an automatic parts transfer mechanism†), Position and Motion Control Systems (which are required to position â€Å"a work head or tool relative to a work part to accomplish a process†), and the Industrial Robotics (which are â€Å"general-purpose programmable machine possessing certain anthropomorphic characteristics†). When the other business functions are examined, we find that almost every single task within the realm of each function can be automated: Information concerning the major issues related to the business as a whole can be produced by computer systems on regular basis, and passed on to management for examination and study before reaching the right decisions in what concerns the survival and progress of their organisation. Accountancy and financial processes can be completely handled by intelligent systems that can, for example, calculate wages according to working hours, process payments to institutions and banks through electronic means over the Internet, can produce invoices and receipts to customers and suppliers, and can also manage shareholder’s issues. In the human resources function, information and requests can be effectuated electronically, but the final step, which is employees selection, cannot be performed by automated systems; because here the human factor and the hu man inter-activity is, and most probably will always be, the determining point. This is also valid for what concerns sales and marketing, the computerised system can perform all that is needed except the stages related to policy making and to physical delivery of products, as here the human factor is still required. There are certain missing parts if the desired objective is to reach a total automated business; such parts can be overcome only if (or when) we manage to solve deep and important problems in what concerns artificial intelligence. Creating systems that can ‘think’ as humans and can perform tasks related to the human factor will not be a fast endeavour, as we are still in the beginning of what concerns understanding and imitating intelligence. CONCLUSION As mentioned earlier, most of the tasks that are related to virtually all business functions can be computerised and/or automated, but the most important element is still the human factor. At the present level of technology, we are unable to create a fully automated business and we cannot transform an existing business entirely into a computerised one. Some business functions, such as accountancy and information management can be fully automated, some other functions, such as human resources and sales and marketing, can be computerised to a very high level, while other functions, such as general management, cannot be automated. Another reason, beside the technological limitations of the field of artificial intelligence today, is that people (whether customers or suppliers) are still not accustomed to dealing solely with machines. Works Cited Bailey, C. (1992) Truly Intelligent Computers. Coalition for Networked Information [online]. Available from:>  [cited 13 April 2007]. Caster, P. and Verardo, D. (2007) Technology Changes the Form and Competence of Audit Evidence. The CPA Journal, 77(1), pp. 68-70. Clarke, R. and Anderson, P. (2001) Information, Organisation, and Technology: Studies in organisational Semiotics. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dorf, R.C. Kusiak, A. (1994) Handbook of Design, Manufacturing and Automation. Hobokin, NJ: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Lan, Y.C. and Unhelkar, B. (2005) Global Enterprise Transitions: Managing the Process. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing Inc. Laudon, J. and Laudon, K. (2006) Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm 10th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Microsoft Encarta 2006. (2005) Automation. [CD-ROM]. Microsoft Corporation. Plunkett, W. R. Attner, R. F. and Allen, G. (2005) Management: Meeting and Exceeding Customer Expectations. Mason, Ohio: Thomson South-Western Publisher. Ross, D. F. (2003) Distribution: Planning and Control 6th ed. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Sanghvi, A. (2007) Improving Service Through Online Payroll. The CPA Journal, 77(3), pp. 11. Torres-Coronas, T. and Arias-Oliva, M. (2005) e-Human Resources Management: Managing Knowledge People. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Vanderbilt Admission :: essays research papers

â€Å"Matt, don’t you play in band?† There was a time in my life when I was afraid to admit it being in band. Maybe it was the lack of tackles and slap shots, or possibly I was embarrassed because the players were not as cool as football or hockey players. Then again, it might have been the strange combination of athletics, music, and academics that I carried through high school. What is it like playing varsity hockey, and playing flute and piccolo in the symphony band? I am used to this question by now. The answer is simple: it is like me. Both activities are enjoyable and come with different benefits. It was not helpful that my hockey teammates were less than supportive about my playing with the band. But, I do what I want for me and not for anyone else. This is a value that my mother instilled in me at a young age. I never really fit into any crowd in high school. So, I just hung out with everyone and came and went as I pleased. While it sounds easy, it can sometimes get a little interesting. Coming right from hockey to a band practice was always fun. Walking into the room 5 minutes with hair still dripping from the shower was common. Is it raining out there? Was the question my director would often ask me. Although there is one time I remember renouncing band and all of the things that I had done with the band. After a long talk with my mother I realized what was truly important to me: me. I am a musician, a student, and an athlete. If you lose one of the three it is no longer me. No matter how much I renounced the music, I could not deny the rush of playing my solo at concerts where everyone was concentrated on me.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Compare how poets portray relationships in ‘Praise Song For My Mother’ and ‘Ghazal’ Essay

Both ‘praise song for my mother’ and ‘ghazal’ use language devices to portray relationships. They use imagery, metaphors and structure to do so. They bother portray in different ways. ‘praise song for my mother’ portrays relationships as happy and fun whereas ‘ghazal’ portrays them as unpredictable and ever changing. In ‘ghazal’, Khalvati writes a different comparison to love in each stanza. ‘If yours is the iron fist in the velvet glove/if I rise in the east you die in the west’. The fact that Khalvati has done this shows that love is never the same. It also shows that it is constantly changing and can never be predicted. It could also show that the woman’s love for the man is constant the mans love for the woman is unreliable and is constantly changing. On the other hand, in ‘praise song for my mother’ each stanza seems the convey the same thing about love, that it is happy and constant. ‘you were sunrise to me rise and warm and streaming’. The word ‘sunrise’ means that the personas lover was what lit up their day and helped them see clearly. It could also mean that their love was constant and never failed as the sun rises every morning in a continuous pattern. The word ‘warm’ has also been used and this could suggest that they are always nice to each other and never argue. Heat can also be linked to the colour red and this in turn can be linked to love, therefore the persona is indirectly expressing their love for this person without facing it head on. In ‘praise song for my mother’ Nichols has used imagery to portray the relationship. ‘you were the fishes red gill to me’. Nichols has used the word ‘gill’ to show that the persona needed the other person. A fish wouldn’t be able to survive without its gills and this shows that the persona might as well be dead without the other person. Everyone would be able to relate to this as everyone has suffered heartbreak. This would help to keep the interested and mean that they can empathise with the reader. The  word ‘red’ has also been used and love is a connotation of the colour red. On the other hand red can be linked to death and this links back to the persona saying that they are dead without the other person. Similarly in ‘ghazal’ Khalvati has also used imagery to show the relationship. ‘when the arrow flies, the heart is pierced, tattoo me’. The use of the word ‘tattoo’ is the persona saying that their love for the other person is eternal and they never want it to end. Tattoos cannot be changed once they are on your skin and Khalvati’s use of the word could mean that they don’t want the other person to change as she thinks they are perfect as they are. Khalvati’s comparison to an arrow means that her love for the other person was sudden and unexpected. She didn’t know it was coming until it struck her. In conclusion I think that both these poems use mostly the same language devices, but where Nichols portrays relationships as a good thing, Khalvati seems to portray them as a bad thing.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Ethical Egoism

Ethical egoism, in my belief, is not the moral theory that men should follow or live by. Simply put, my belief stems from the multiple inconsistencies and contradictions that are inherent in the said normative system. Self-interest and self-preservation, although very valuable, are not, in my opinion, the primary factors that should drive a man’s life. It is because, I believe, by purely following one’s own interests, man fails to consider the greater picture, that being the peace and harmony in society.More importantly, I believe that man can be driven by other desires and motives in his moral actions. Hobbes’ assertion is that man should use his power to preserve himself and to do what he must in order to satisfy his own interests. His fundamental assumption regarding the nature of man is that man is an agent of self-interest who is prepared to harm others in order to obtain what he believes is best for him. Furthermore, Hobbes states that man is governed by hi s own reason and that every man has the right to everything. Such statement is what Hobbes calls the fundamental law of nature.However, Hobbes believes that if it is in the self-interest and preservation of one’s life to enter into a covenant with another, man is bound to abide by such covenant. Contracts are reached when both parties feel that it is in their best interests to enter and agree to the terms. Breaking a covenant or a contract is considered unjust in Hobbes’ view. Hobbes’ idea is that man must submit to certain moral rules out of fear of conflict which is to his best interests. Basically, Hobbes suggested that a human being acts morally because it is in his self-interest to do so.There have been various philosophers who have raised arguments and objections against Hobbes’ views. One of such philosophers is H. A. Prichard. In Prichard’s point of view, there is no need to whether self-interest and morality run in parallel with each other . Instead, he suggests that human beings have reasons other than self-interest to act morally. One such reason is the innate desire in humans to do the right thing. Prichard suggests that having motives other than self-interest allows us to determine whether an individual who has done something moral deserves praise or not.Without the presence of other motives, self-interest will be the only driving factor and thus, will remove any possible distinction between two persons committing the same moral act. Brody’s argument with regards to the basis of morality on self-interest is that human beings can have other motives for being moral. Admitting that all actions are based on the satisfaction of a certain desire, Brody states that humans may have desires for something else other than his own well-being. Brody believes that selfish motives are indeed a possible source of moral actions.However, he asserts that this does not mean that all moral actions stem from selfish motives alon e. In other words, egoism is not clearly established as the sole source of morality. My belief that ethical egoism is not the correct moral theory agrees with Brody’s assertions. Aside from the points that Brody has raised, I believe that ethical egoism fails to consider the possibility that men act not for their own interests alone. The interests of another person may drive the man to act morally especially if such a person is deeply valued. For instance a parent may act morally not for her own interests but for that of her children.Ethical egoism fails to consider that human nature includes certain emotions that are driving factors of one’s actions. Emotions or feelings such as love, care, and affection are also possible motives for actions. These have not been taken into account by ethical egoism. Thus, it is my personal belief that ethical egoism is not the correct moral theory. Reference: Arthur, John. 2005. â€Å"Morality, Religion, and Conscience. † In Ar thur, J. (Ed. ) Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Upper Saddle River, N. J. : Pearson Prentice Hall.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Phobias and Addictions Essays

Phobias and Addictions Essays Phobias and Addictions Essay Phobias and Addictions Essay Richard Johnston Types of Conditioning Phobia and Addictions Phobias and addictions can be very difficult on a mental standpoint. The definition of a phobia is an exaggerated usually inexplicable and illogical fear of a particular object, class of objects, or situation (Webster). There are many kinds of phobias such as, Xenophobia the fear of dogs could be a result of being bitten as a child or being cornered by a dog. Other fears could be Catastrophic the fear of lightening as a child oh were scared of storms so you developed a phobia on storms. Acrophobia is fear of heights and the fear of falling you are high up you might have an anxiety attack so you avoid high places. Transportation is the fear of injections (the fear of needles), which can cause one anxiety because the patient associates the pain with the needle. A reaction can be caused before the injection is given such as fainting or other anxiety symptoms. Phobias are can be developed through classical conditioning. Ivan Pavlov was famous for his theory of classical conditioning who studied digestive systems of dogs. In his studies and experiment he noticed, that dogs salivate when presented with food which was a common trait. Pavlov noticed if the bell or a tuning fork rang the dog would salivate when there was no food present. The dog associated the food with the bell this is what is known as classical conditioning. One more example of this is music the neutral stimulus is the music when paired the unconditioned stimulus automatically triggers tapping of the feet know as an unconditioned response. Fears and phobias progress in the same way as conditioning. Phobias can cause health problems from panic attacks or anxiety. Individuals with phobias avoid being in that situation and stay in their comfort zone. Human beings we behaviors that can easily become addicted to a drug or food or substance. In operant conditioning human beings get addicted to substances they see other people doing, such as food, sex, gambling, and drugs. Addiction is defined as compulsive physiological need for and use of a habit-forming substance (as heroin, nicotine, or alcohol) characterized by tolerance and by well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal; broadly: persistent compulsive use of a absence known by the user to be physically, psychologically, or socially harmful (Webster). Classical conditioning is learned behavior using a stimulus and operant conditioning is a method of learning that uses a reward to gain the desired response the craving for the drug the use of the drug is the reward. One example to is that classical conditioning involuntary behavior and Operant conditioning is focused on voluntary behaviors. Operant conditioning is defined as a conditioning in which the desired behavior or increasingly closer approximations to it are followed by a rewarding or reinforcing stimulus (Webster). Operant conditioning can be used for punishment when the desired response is not achieved. Addiction such as alcohol for example would be you had the long hard day and you a have a cold six pack over the legal limit. The beer was your reward for having a long hard day. The addiction of wanting more beer is and addiction to alcohol and the substance has a hold of you which is known as alcoholism. The punishment will be impulsive if you get caught being pulled over for driving under the influence by the police because you decided o get more beer and drive to the store that would not be a favorite for a drinker getting caught the rush is not to get caught. Extinction would be not to drink at all and have an ice tea and make the behavior decrees or disappear. Operant conditioning can be related to an extinction technique if to many beers are consumed and the individual decides to go get more beer in a driving a motor vehicle to get there the thrill would be not getting caught and the consequence would be getting arrested for driving under the influence. The extinction would be not to drink s many beers or not at all and try a different reward for a long hard day and never to drive under the influence of alcohol. In summary I have talked about classical conditioning and how it is automatic for dogs to salivate when there is food present and buy repeating the conditions with the bell ringing triggered the same response the dog eventually learned when the bell rings there is food and to salivate even without the food present. We learned the operant conditioning requires some type of reward being either positive or negative such as punishment. We learned about hobbies and what types of phobias are out there, phobias can cause health problems if not treated.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Prejudice1 essays

Prejudice1 essays Although the fight to stop racism has made huge strides since thirty years ago, racism is still alive and well today. Racism has become such a deep-rooted part of society that it often goes unnoticed in our everyday lives. In Brent Staples Just Walk on By: A Black Man Ponders His Power to Alter Public Space," and Austin Clarkes A Stranger in a Strange Land, both authors speak of how they deal with the burdens borne by someone who sees himself or herself and is seen by others, as an outsider. Although both Staples and Clarke face this problem, the two respond to the dilemmas they face in different ways. By engaging in simple tasks such as taking a late night stroll, Staples automatically becomes subject to others racism and fear. His everyday life is under continuous scrutiny by a white society that both fears and misunderstands him. Staples introduces the very extent to which society fears black people in the first sentence. On a late night saunter, his " first victim [is] a woman - white, well dressed, probably in her early twenties." Fortunately, in reality, the woman is not the victim of any black on white racial violence; but, unfortunately, Staples is the victim of white racist presumptions about his character, that are based solely on the colour of his skin. This incident makes him realize he has the ability to alter public space in ugly ways; sadly however, it is only the beginning of Staples encounters with a predominantly white society and their racial stereotypes. Staples realizes that women have a right to be weary of men while they are alone at night; however, he takes no solace against the kind of alienation that comes of being ever the suspect. Somehow, despite all the animosity Staples faces, he consciously, or perhaps unconsciously decides that he will remain a shadow timid, but a survivor. He figures it will b...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

German Battleship Bismarck in World War II

German Battleship Bismarck in World War II Bismarck was the first of two Bismarck-class battleships that were ordered for the Kriegsmarine in the years prior to World War II. Built by Blohm and Voss, the battleship mounted a main battery of eight 15 guns and was capable of a top speed of over 30 knots. Quickly identified as a threat by the Royal Navy, efforts to track Bismarck were underway after its commissioning in August 1940. Ordered on its first mission into the Atlantic the following year, Bismarck won a victory over HMS Hood at the Battle of the Denmark Strait, but soon came under a combined attack by British ships and aircraft. Damaged by an aerial torpedo, Bismarck was sunk by British surface ships on May 27, 1941. Design In 1932, German naval leaders requested a series of battleship designs intended to fit within the 35,000 ton limit imposed on leading maritime nations by the Washington Naval Treaty.  Initial work began on what became the Bismarck-class the following year and initially centered around an armament of eight 13 guns and a top speed of 30 knots. In 1935, the signing of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement accelerated German efforts as it allowed the Kriegsmarine to build up to 35% of the total tonnage of the Royal Navy. Additionally, it bound the Kriegsmarine to the Washington Naval Treaty tonnage restrictions. Increasingly concerned about Frances naval expansion, German designers sought to create a new type of battleship that would out-class the newer French vessels. Design work moved forward with debates ensuing over the caliber of the main battery, type of propulsion system, and thickness of the armor.  These were further complicated in 1937 with the departure of Japan from the treaty system and implementation of an escalator clause that increased the tonnage limit to 45,000 tons. When German designers learned that the new French Richelieu-class would mount 15 guns, the decision was made use similar weapons in four two-gun turrets. This battery was supplemented by a secondary battery of twelve 5.9 (150 mm) guns. Several means of propulsion were considered including turbo-electric, diesel geared, and steam drives. After assessing each, turbo-electric drive was initially favored as it had proven effective aboard the American Lexington-class aircraft carriers. Construction As construction moved forward, the new class propulsion came to be  geared turbine engines turning three propellers. For protection, the new class mounted an armor belt ranging in thickness from 8.7 to 12.6. This area of the ship was further protected by 8.7 armored, transverse bulkheads. Elsewhere, armor for the conning tower was 14 on the sides and 7.9 on the roof. The armor scheme reflected the German approach of maximizing protection while maintaining stability. Ordered under the name  Ersatz Hannover, the lead ship of the new class, Bismarck, was laid down at Blohm Voss in Hamburg on July 1, 1936. The first name served as an indication that the new vessel was replacing the old pre-dreadnought Hannover. Sliding down the ways on February 14, 1939, the new battleship was sponsored by  Dorothee von Là ¶wenfeld, granddaughter of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck would be followed a second battleship of its class, Tirpitz, in 1941. Fast Facts: Battleship Bismarck General Nation: Nazi GermanyType: BattleshipShipyard: Blohm Voss, HamburgLaid Down: July 1, 1936Launched: February 14, 1939Commissioned: August 24, 1940Fate: Sunk in action, May 27, 1941 Specifications Displacement: 45,451 tonnesLength: 450.5mBeam (Width): 36mDraft:: 9.3-10.2mPropulsion: 12 High-pressure Wagner boilers powering 3 Blohm Voss geared turbines at 150,170 horsepowerSpeed: 30.8 knotsRange: 8,525 nautical miles at 19 knots, 4,500 nautical miles at 28 knotsComplement: 2,092: 103 officers, 1,989 enlisted Armament Guns 8Ãâ€"380 mm/L48.5 SK-C/34 (4 turrets with 2 guns each)12Ãâ€"150 mm/L55 SK-C/2816Ãâ€"105 mm/L65 SK-C/37 / SK-C/3316Ãâ€"37 mm/L83 SK-C/3012Ãâ€"20 mm/L65 MG C/30 (Single)8Ãâ€"20 mm/L65 MG C/38 (Quadruple) Aircraft 4Ãâ€" Arado Ar 196 A-3 seaplanes, using 1 double-ended catapult Early Career Commissioned in August 1940, with Captain  Ernst Lindemann in command, Bismarck departed Hamburg to conduct sea trials in Kiel Bay.  Testing of the ships armament, power plant, and seakeeping abilities continued through the fall in the relative safety of the Baltic Sea. Arriving at Hamburg in December, the battleship entered the yard for repairs and alterations. Though scheduled to return to Kiel in January, a wreck in the Kiel Canal prevented this from occurring until March. Finally reaching the Baltic, Bismarck resumed training operations. With World War II underway, the German Kriegsmarine envisioned using Bismarck as a raider to attack British convoys in the North Atlantic. With its 15 guns, the battleship would be able to strike from a distance, inflicting maximum damage while placing itself at minimal risk. Bismarck, photographed from Prinz Eugen, in the Baltic at the outset of Operation Rheinà ¼bung, May 1941. Bundesarchiv, Bild 146-1989-012-03 / Lagemann / CC-BY-SA 3.0 The battleships first mission in this role was dubbed Operation Rheinà ¼bung (Exercise Rhine) and proceeded under the command of  Vice Admiral Gà ¼nter Là ¼tjens. Sailing in tandem with the cruiser Prinz Eugen, Bismarck departed Norway on May 22, 1941, and headed towards the shipping lanes. Aware of Bismarcks departure, the Royal Navy had begun moving ships to intercept. Steering north and west, Bismarck headed for the Denmark Strait between Greenland and Iceland. Battle of the Denmark Straight Entering the strait, Bismarck was detected by the cruisers HMS Norfolk and HMS Suffolk which called for reinforcements. Responding were the battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the battlecruiser HMS Hood. The two intercepted the Germans at the south end of the strait on the morning of May 24. Less than 10 minutes after the ships opened fire, Hood was struck in one of its magazines causing an explosion that blew the ship in half. Unable to take on both German ships alone, Prince of Wales broke off the fight. During the battle, Bismarck was hit in a fuel tank, causing a leak and forcing a reduction in speed (Map). Bismarck fires on HMS Prince of Wales during the Battle of the Denmark Strait. Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1984-055-13 Sink the Bismarck! Unable to continue with his mission, Là ¼tjens ordered Prinz Eugen to continue on while he turned the leaking Bismarck toward France. On the night of May 24, aircraft from the carrier HMS Victorious attacked with little effect. Two days later aircraft from HMS Ark Royal scored a hit, jamming Bismarcks rudder. Unable to maneuver, the ship was forced to steam in a slow circle while awaiting the arrival of the British battleships HMS King George V and HMS Rodney. They were sighted the following morning and Bismarcks final battle commenced. Bismarck burning in the distance as HMS Rodney (right) fires, May 27, 1941. Public Domain Assisted by the heavy cruisers HMS Dorsetshire and Norfolk, the two British battleships pummeled the stricken Bismarck, knocking its guns out of action and killing most of the senior officers on board. After 30 minutes, the cruisers attacked with torpedoes. Unable to resist further, Bismarcks crew scuttled the ship to prevent its capture. British ships raced in to pick up the survivors and rescued 110 before a U-boat alarm forced them to leave the area. Close to 2,000 German sailors were lost.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Personal statement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 2

Personal statement - Essay Example My dream goes on to include a specialization in the field of law. The reason behind my dream is quite simple. I want to be set apart from every lawyer pounding the pavement of the court houses and law offices. That is why I am intent on attending a year long Masters of Law post graduate degree. Okay, I admit that I am an Asian immigrant with UK citizenship status. I will be the first to acknowledge that I have some difficulty in expressing myself in the English language. By now you are probably wondering what I am doing in the legal field of studies when I am sure to shine brightly if I concentrate on the area of Math or Management. Let me put it this way, my language handicap has never been a barrier for me towards achieving any of my dreams. I managed to keep my grades at a decent average as a Law student at the University of York. I may have struggled to express myself in the English language during certain instances of public debate and other spoken avenues of my subjects but I n ever lost heart. My Law studies posed the biggest challenge of my life. I may have had a difficult time in most of my classes and my scores may have been only average but what mattered the most what that I never gave up. I gave my studies everything I had and managed to come out of it with remarkable improvements in my class grades that continue with every semester that I complete. Even more amazing to my professors at York is the fact that I manage to somehow keep my grades up while I participate in various sports activities on campus. I am an active participant in table tennis matches and other British and University College Sports. These are after class activities that I enjoy participating in because it helps me relax and forget all of the legal studies that take up most of my student days. After all, I am no good as a student if I am burned out. Neither will I be good lawyer if I do not know how to relax and take some time off in order to get a fresh perspective of the cases I am working on. I have never been faced with a challenge that made me turn away. I have always faced my fears head on and plunged into seeking solutions to them rather than cowering in one corner, wondering what other people can do to help me overcome my difficulties in class and other avenues of life. I believe that this go-getter attitude comes from the fact that I am a person who is always eager to learn and excited about discovering new avenues of learning that can bring me new life experiences at the same time. Having mentioned before that I am of Asian descent, it is pretty obvious that I can easily excel in anything related to Maths. So, not wanting to waste my inborn talent for numbers and analysis, I have decided to pursue a LLM degree in order to become a very competent commercial lawyer. It seems like the most logical step for me because I can see and understand the way the world economies are balancing on the brink of bankruptcy and the banks are caught in the middle of i t all. As a LLM lawyer with a specialization in the commercial field, I will easily be able to defend the financiers of the world when they need legal help the most. With such a highly specialized degree, I do not even have to be a lawyer all my life. Having a LLM will allow me to pursue other career avenues in the legal field such as tax and international law. But most importantly, the LLM will give me an upper hand when enticing other companies to hire me for upper management positions. After all, a

Friday, October 18, 2019

5 health indicators and analysis - Research Paper

5 health indicators and analysis - - Research Paper Example Five health indicators from three different countries will be analyzed to reveal three-income stratifications high, medium, and low income. The five health indicators are the following; death rate, Infant mortality rate, Life expectancy at birth years, literacy and HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate. The countries are Switzerland, Mexico, and Somalia, which were selected to illustrate the disparity existing because of their income status. Death rate can be describe as the average number of deaths in a year per 1000 population and indicates the current mortality impact on population growth. Per Index Mundi, the death rate in Mexico is 4.9/1000 population at midyear, followed by Switzerland at 8.8, and Somalia at 14.55 (Index Mundi, 2011). The most probable causes of this 14.55 high incidence of death in Somalia can be attributed to lack of sanitation, poor access to medical services, and poor diet. On the other hand, the low death rate seen in Mexico can be associated with proper sanitation, easy access to advance medical care, and healthy feeding habits. The lowest infant mortality rate of the three countries stands at 4.03/1000 births followed by Mexico’s 16.77, and the highest being Somalias 103.72 (Central Intelligence Agency, n.d b). The comparison of the infancy mortality rate between the three countries raises concern, as the number of fatalities among infants in Somalia is alarming. This demonstrates the need for Mexico and Somalia to invest in more in infant and maternal health, and run programs such as vaccination to aid in reducing infant mortality. The average years lived by a group of individuals born in the same year describes the life expectancy at birth, in which Switzerland’s is relatively high. Since Switzerland is considered a higher income country, they can invest more preventive on health care and health education, which improves the life expectancy of the

Explain how the management practices of planning, leading, organizing, Essay

Explain how the management practices of planning, leading, organizing, staffing, and controlling are implemented in your place o - Essay Example Leading – is the process where all the organizations resources, including manpower, are effectively led towards the fulfillment of the stated objective. It includes motivating the people to optimize their performances. Organizing – determines the tasks that need to be done to achieve the stated objectives and goals. The organization’s structure is also defined at this stage where functions can be effectively dispensed and to establish who decides what. Staffing - is the stage or process of determining the personnel who can do the job best. It also involves the determination of how many people are required for a task to be accomplished. Controlling – is the tool where management can measure its actual performance compared to the intended plan. Through controlling, management is enabled to apply corrective measure if there is a deviation in performance vis-a-vis intended plan. II. How are these principles implemented in the workplace? I used to work in a sta rt up fast food chain and was involved in setting up of its new branch. I was a new employee and was assigned to tag along the branch manager and was asked to perform as a support system to the setting up of the new branch. My functions then are not clearly defined as I was involved in almost all aspect of the business but it gave me an insight on the different aspect of management. It gave me an idea that running a business is both a science and art where there are principles that needs to implemented and also tools to be used for the successful management of a business enterprise. The first stage: Planning Before going to the actual site, and doing anything the manager first planned on what to do and how do we intend to things. From what I recall, the objectives must be first established as a core part of planning. In our case, the first and most important objective is to make the store operational in three months within a specified budget. Schedules were then established along wi th commensurate tasks that need to be performed for the objective to be realized. Management tools were employed such as the Gantt chart, Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM) to ensure that everything will go on schedule to realize the objective of opening the store in three months (Gomez-Mejia, 2002). The planning stage took a while because it involved several studies to determine on how some functions can be done with a smaller budget and shorter period of time. Example for this is the consideration on how the physical be set up at a lesser cost. Leading When the objectives were already clearly defined and the tasks needed to accomplish were already enumerated, the Branch Manager, has to pull its human resources together and direct our efforts and energy towards the fulfillment of tasks on schedule. In addition of clearly defining what needs to be done in a specific time-frame to accomplish our objectives, the Branch Manager also motivated his people by giving favorable write-ups and small incentives if we accomplish tasks within the stated time-frame (Gray, 2008). Organizing After defining the tasks involved on how to accomplish our objective, tasks were then specifically assigned to each employee where we are responsible for its completion. Task varies after the completion of each task and is usually time bound. The branch manager had to check time to time to ensure that each one of us is within schedule and that there is no duplication of work to

The Metamorphosis- Gregor's Sarcasm and Irony Essay

The Metamorphosis- Gregor's Sarcasm and Irony - Essay Example He despised his boss, but in spite of that he imagined staying in his job for a long time, in order that he may pay the debts that his parents had incurred towards the boss. In a way he was working for his parents and for his sister, and is that not the mark of a good man, to be self-sacrificial? Yet viewed another way, one can make a case for reading the text from the perspective of how sarcasm and irony can be a means to understand what is happening in the story, given the fantastic nature of the change that happened to Gregor, and given the way Gregor seemed to have reacted to the whole change not so much with a sense of shock and horror but more with a kind of surreal acceptance. The same goes for his family. The rest of the paper examines these lines of thinking as they relate to understanding Gregor from the lens of irony and sarcasm (Kafka). An argument can be made for instance to view Gregor’s thoughts about his job in the light of its sarcastic and ironic overtones. He hates his job, but has to keep it because his parents owe his boss a lot of money. Sure he is the breadwinner, but does not that come with Gregor resenting his work, and secretly resenting the life that he is living? When he says, for instance, that he has maybe five or six years left before he can fully pay his parents’ debts, does not that sound like he is being sarcastic? From experience, if you hate your job, even a day can seem like an eternity. Six years on the other hand, is sheer torture, in comparison to which maybe turning into an insect is more acceptable? Is this why he turned into an insect in the first place, as a kind of wish fulfillment and a way out of his dreary existence? Taking a step back, is not there something ironic and sarcastic in the way Gregor reacted to the fact that he had turned into an insect? One moment, he was shivering at the sight of his body, his legs, the white spots where he itched, and the next

Thursday, October 17, 2019

How Businesses Use Learning & Memory to Affect Consumers Essay - 1

How Businesses Use Learning & Memory to Affect Consumers - Essay Example What makes the study of memory so complicated is that humans have disparate methods by which information is encoded and retrieved, which is largely dependent on the level to which the human finds information relevant and important. Marketers, today, seem to understand these differences in learning and memory processing and generate marketing content (i.e. advertisements, banner ads or even digital marketing via technology) that alter the encoding process of consumers so that they will be better able to recall a brand or find personal preference toward the product or service. Consumers all have different learning processes, however there is research evidence that consumers are biased in learning as it relates to their personal stereotypes as well as the degree to which marketing information is considered relevant to the consumer. This essay focuses on the phenomenon of constraint theory in learning, consumer biases and offers an evaluation of how marketers persuade consumers to favour their brand based on consumer memory processing and learning characteristics of important target consumers. Consumer biases in learning and constraint theory It is the goal of marketers, from a competitive standpoint, to establish brand recognition in the minds of important and profitable consumers. Brand recognition is the ability of consumers to recall a particular brand under disparate conditions and be able to effectively recall logo, brand name and even brand-related slogans and jingles and link this recognition to the product or service (Schiffman and Kanuk 2010). Establishing brand recognition is critical to marketers as if they cannot recall the brand, the brand will not be considered as a potential purchase or sought as an alternative in the consumer behaviour model (Tan 2010). However, in order to establish this important aspect of brand management, marketers must first understand how consumers encode and retrieve information. The memory encoding process is complex in con sumers and is often associated with the degree to which a consumer finds a particular stimulus to be enjoyable or relevant to their lifestyles or needs. Encoding processes are strongly related to the pre-existing personal experiences and phenomenon to which consumers are exposed (Yun Yoo 2008; Cameron 1999). For instance, a consumer that is given a glass of branded alcohol in an environment where there is a crying child will likely not result in the production of strong memories that favour the brand. However, when given the same branded beverage in an environment where there is fun social activity in the individual’s peer network, the situation will be encoded as a powerful memory with positive associations between brand and experience (Cameron 1999). Therefore, there is significant evidence in the memory encoding process that a person’s level of interest and involvement determines whether positive or negative cognitive associations are created in the memory encoding and retrieval processes. This is how marketers, today, are able to utilise memory processes in consumer target groups to gain positive brand recognition and general positive sentiment toward a brand. Marketing literature tells business leaders that when a brand is able to provide consumers with a perception that the brand can enhance their lifestyles and provide self-expansion (i.e. social status improvement or lifestyle enrichment), they are likely to develop very strong emotional attachments to the brand

Financial advisor as a career choice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Financial advisor as a career choice - Essay Example An illustration: an insurance agent is qualified to sell variable annuities and life insurance. Their compensation is in terms of commission, fees or both (DE GOEY, 2003, p. 65). A financial advisor has the following duties: they should be independent of influence from outside so as to make reasonable investment recommendations, their selection of brokers should be based on the ability of proper execution of their responsibilities, make inquiry of client’s objectives of investment, financial and other factors before any recommendations are drawn, and always let the client’s interest have the upper hand. As a financial advisor there necessary skills and qualities required. The skills are grouped into two, financial and non-financial skills. The non-financial skills needed are: Relationship-management skills This is a people skill required to excel in the career of a financial advisor. A financial advisor is required to listen, ask the right questions, counsel clients, ed ucate clients, resolve conflicts, and understanding the different personalities. They should be knowledgeable in psychology and finance as well, though research has it that â€Å"15% technical knowledge and 85 % psychology. Clients mostly approach a financial advisor in case they are spending a lot, saving nothing or even saving everything. Therefore they need a financial advisor who is not biased thus will attend to their needs and will assist them in making their decisions on finances. I have acquired the life skill which is essential in the profession of a financial advisor. The life skill I have acquired has been of help since I interact with my fellow colleagues and I am able to solve issues amongst us. Therefore becoming a financial advisor will not be challenging as I will be in a position to relate with my co-workers, boss, and the people outside the firm. This could result to a recommendation of a client to me and it could warrant a promotion. According to chapter 8 of Fit zsimmons and Fitzsimmons for any improvement in performance there should be suitable management skills. Personal skills; I am competent enough to manage equally I have been a leader. The relations that I have created in college are evidence that in a job market I can create a good relationship with my co-workers, bosses, and people around me. At times the advisor goes to the extent of making less money so as to create good relationship hence develop a long-term relationship of trust. Leverage comes about after offering quality services and in return they get referrals of other clients and the satisfied clients are willing to offer more for consultancy. With trust the client follows the guidelines of the advisor. The interests of the client should be placed above your own (KANDAMPULLY, 2012, p. 68). Communication skills. They should be articulate, good in writing and presentation skills to assist a client With the appropriate communication skills it is possible to explain to the cust omer the available investment opportunities. A financial advisor should be ready to be involved in a one-on-one discussion with a client since that is the main role. Ability to take and relate complex investment ideas and strategies to their clients in a manner that is effective and simple. Professional competence and no arrogance should be reflected in their communication. Empathy coupled with confidence have created a communication style that is powerful. The module has improved my communication and listening skills in a great way. Personally: I have learnt to be confident with what I say. I have learnt to relate

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

How Businesses Use Learning & Memory to Affect Consumers Essay - 1

How Businesses Use Learning & Memory to Affect Consumers - Essay Example What makes the study of memory so complicated is that humans have disparate methods by which information is encoded and retrieved, which is largely dependent on the level to which the human finds information relevant and important. Marketers, today, seem to understand these differences in learning and memory processing and generate marketing content (i.e. advertisements, banner ads or even digital marketing via technology) that alter the encoding process of consumers so that they will be better able to recall a brand or find personal preference toward the product or service. Consumers all have different learning processes, however there is research evidence that consumers are biased in learning as it relates to their personal stereotypes as well as the degree to which marketing information is considered relevant to the consumer. This essay focuses on the phenomenon of constraint theory in learning, consumer biases and offers an evaluation of how marketers persuade consumers to favour their brand based on consumer memory processing and learning characteristics of important target consumers. Consumer biases in learning and constraint theory It is the goal of marketers, from a competitive standpoint, to establish brand recognition in the minds of important and profitable consumers. Brand recognition is the ability of consumers to recall a particular brand under disparate conditions and be able to effectively recall logo, brand name and even brand-related slogans and jingles and link this recognition to the product or service (Schiffman and Kanuk 2010). Establishing brand recognition is critical to marketers as if they cannot recall the brand, the brand will not be considered as a potential purchase or sought as an alternative in the consumer behaviour model (Tan 2010). However, in order to establish this important aspect of brand management, marketers must first understand how consumers encode and retrieve information. The memory encoding process is complex in con sumers and is often associated with the degree to which a consumer finds a particular stimulus to be enjoyable or relevant to their lifestyles or needs. Encoding processes are strongly related to the pre-existing personal experiences and phenomenon to which consumers are exposed (Yun Yoo 2008; Cameron 1999). For instance, a consumer that is given a glass of branded alcohol in an environment where there is a crying child will likely not result in the production of strong memories that favour the brand. However, when given the same branded beverage in an environment where there is fun social activity in the individual’s peer network, the situation will be encoded as a powerful memory with positive associations between brand and experience (Cameron 1999). Therefore, there is significant evidence in the memory encoding process that a person’s level of interest and involvement determines whether positive or negative cognitive associations are created in the memory encoding and retrieval processes. This is how marketers, today, are able to utilise memory processes in consumer target groups to gain positive brand recognition and general positive sentiment toward a brand. Marketing literature tells business leaders that when a brand is able to provide consumers with a perception that the brand can enhance their lifestyles and provide self-expansion (i.e. social status improvement or lifestyle enrichment), they are likely to develop very strong emotional attachments to the brand

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

What is egovernment, what was its goal and has it worked Assignment

What is egovernment, what was its goal and has it worked - Assignment Example though installation of e-government is predicted to boost the economy in various ways, it attracts different reactions as far as its sustainability is concerned. Preview of the existing governments that have used it like in United States and Europe gives an insight into the pros and cons of this program. Critical assessment of past literature and the observed global socio-economic and political trend offers the best platform to debate this phenomenon. The relevance of e-government is significantly supported as it seeks to improve public and private partnership in the emerging service delivery models. The increasing debate on quality of service delivery in the public sector has seen growth in e-government. This concept is seen as boosting efficiency and effectiveness of the functionality of the government in its service delivery responsibility to the people. In this wake of public-private partnership, incorporation of information and communication technology in various activities is inevitable. In this respect, various governments have sought to apply e-government towards competitive execution of its services for internal and external interactions .E-government is a means of ‘electronic governance’. It is the use of Information Technology in the functioning of a government so as to have good and smart governance. Smart implies ‘Moral, Simple, Responsive, Accountable, and transparent’. This constitutes the use of information and communication technology by the agencies of the government so as to have transparency while dealing with different issues (Affis co, et al. 2006). E-government has significant role in improving the efficiency of various arms of government in their different duties. However, there are criticisms that are seen as regards its implementation and sustainability in this era of increasing cybercrime among other ICT related challenges. The overall gains that have been made and the prospective benefits that are associated with implementing

Monday, October 14, 2019

History of the American Constitution

History of the American Constitution Confederation and Constitution As depression struck the new nation in the mid-1780s, new questions arose about the nature of American democracy. Many conservatives believed that the answer lay in a stronger national government.Most radicals believed it was up to the states to relieve the financial burden of the people. These sentiments fostered a movement for a new constitution. Political differences soon stimulated the creation of political parties. Compare and contrast the Articles of Confederation with the new Constitution of 1787. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the Articles vis-à  -vis the Constitution? Give specific instances that demonstrate the weakness of the Articles (such asthe Western problem). Then analyze the drafting of the Constitution, using specific details to show how the various states (slave vs. free, east vs. west) compromised in order to effectively draft a constitution.Pay particular attention to Roger Sherman’s plan,the Great Compromise, which broke a stalemate that could have been fatal to the development of the new Constitution. Finally, compare and contrast the debate over ratification between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Make sure you cite specific examples from the Federalist Papers to support the Federalist position and contrast it with leading proponents of the opposition (such asJohn Hancock). Analyze how the debate over a bill of rights illustrates the differences between the two parties. Evaluate the relative success of the Bill of Rights in achieving an effective balance between national and states’ interests. Revolution: From Rebellion to Jeffersonian Democracy A Different Kind of Revolution | From Confederation to Constitution | Federalist Timeline The end of the American Revolution was the beginning of the formation of a new republic. But the transition was not easy, as the Articles of Confederation that first bound the thirteen colonies proved too weak to confront the problems that faced the new nation. The transition from the Articles of Confederation to the Constitution to Jeffersonian Democracy is the focus of this week’s work. A Different Kind of Revolution Back to Top The American Revolution has spawned a vast amount of literature, as it created the first new nation-state of the modern era. Yet, compared with the French and Russian Revolutions that followed, it was a â€Å"conservative† revolution. It did not radically change the colonial society that existed before. From 1763 to 1776, the colonists argued that they were fighting for the rights of â€Å"Englishmen.† But some historians maintain that the revolution was truly radical, and point to the disestablishment of state religions immediately after the war. But the truth is that several states had already disestablished their state religions before the outbreak of war. Other historians point to the democratic state legislatures created after the war. But again, only Pennsylvania and Rhode Island established truly radical state governments with a unicameral legislature. The truth is that the basic elements of capitalism, money, and slavery remained after the revolution. Yet the founding fathers did believe that they were creating something new. The great seal proclaims, a â€Å"novus ordo seculorum† (a new world order). And world opinion abroad concurred with this opinion. One French observer complained of America’s experiment with â€Å"liberty and justice for all.† But the new nation lacked the prerequisites of nationhood: mythical origins, ancient folklore, one church, and common ethnic roots. In 1782, J. Hector St. John de Crà ¨vecÅ“ur published Letters from an American Farmer. He described Americans as a new people, dedicated to the principles of equal opportunity and self-determination. His work provided an understanding of the New World that helped create an American identity in the minds of Europeans. Crà ¨vecÅ“ur wrote, â€Å"What then is the American, this new man?He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced†¦Here individuals of all races are melted into a new race of man, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world.† Men like Crà ¨vecÅ“ur and later Alexis de Tocqueville believed that Americans were truly different because they were tied together by the ideals of the Enlightenment—liberty, individuality, and democracy. The American identity took on the character of a civic religion. George Washington metamorphosed into something more than human. His birthday was made a national holiday in 1799 and Mason Adams carried this sanctification to an extreme with his story of the cherry tree. July 4th became â€Å"the† national holiday and the Declaration of Independence became a sacred text. It was only after the Civil War that due emphasis was placed on the Constitution. The national motto, e pluribus unum—from many one—expressed the new American ideal. The founding fathers did see something new in America, but, it was more prescriptive than descriptive. Freedom for many was still an illusion. From Confederation to Constitution Back to Top After the Revolutionary War, the patriots feared giving the new American government too much power. Early state governments argued over how much power to give the people. Some, like Thomas Paine, sought changes that would promote democracy; others like Alexander Hamilton feared giving too much power to the common man. Most states like Massachusetts and New York chose to create a conservative state constitution, with a bicameral legislature. But patriots continued to argue over who should be given the right to vote, with men like John Adams warning that allowing the poor to vote would â€Å"confound and destroy all distinctions, and prostrate all ranks to the common level.† Over time, the House of Representatives—the most democratic of all institutions—gained power at the expense of the Senate, the more conservative branch of government. In 1777, the Continental Congress drafted the Articles of Confederation. Drafted under the leadership of John Dickenson of Pennsylvania, the Articles were a loose confederation of thirteen states with very little power given to the federal government. The new federal government consisted of a congress of delegates chosen by state legislatures rather than by voters. It had no President or executive branch. The Articles granted only limited powers to Congress—to declare and conduct war and to regulate foreign affairs. Amending articles was almost impossible, as all thirteen states had to agree. One of the most important accomplishments of the Congress was the creation of the Northwest Territory, a vast area of land west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio River. The Land Ordinance of 1785 designed a system for distributing the land to settlers and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 provided a government for the western territories. Eventually, the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinoi s, Michigan, and Wisconsin would be carved out of this region. But the new Congress was too weak to deal with threats from Spain and Britain. Great Britain, who at first tried to cultivate good will with the new nation, returned to a policy of mercantilism, or trade in its own best interest. They prohibited American ships—in particular those from Massachusetts—to trade with the British West Indies. It soon became clear that the Articles themselves were part of the problem. Under the Articles, the federal Congress had no power to deal with the growing national debt. When the Congress tried to seek an amendment to levy a tax on imported goods, the amendment failed for lack of one vote. Meanwhile, with a slowdown in trade, more and more farmers went into debt. In 1787, Daniel Shays, a veteran of the Revolutionary War, led about 1,000 farmers in rebellion against the Massachusetts courts. While the rebellion quickly died out, it pointed to the weakness of the federal government in dealing with the growing national debt. The stage was s et for the Constitutional Convention of that same year. Constitutional Convention Now join in the discussions as a reporter at the Constitutional Convention of 1787. You are encouraged to take notes for your newspaper article at the end of this role-play. Constitutional Convention Federalist Timeline Back to Top The following timeline traces the evolution of the federal government from the Articles of Confederation to Jeffersonian Democracy. The Articles of Confederation proved too weak for the fledgling republic and so a new Constitution emerged in 1787. This gave rise to the two-party system, with men like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison leading the Democratic Republicans and George Washington and Alexander Hamilton remaining Federalists. With the election of Thomas Jefferson as President in 1799, American democracy took on a new, more populist flavor. This paper must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including the References page) and utilize no less thanfour academic quality sources.Margins should be no more thanone inch (right and left) and the essay should be composed in an appropriate font and size. Sources must be documented and cited using APA format. History of the American Constitution History of the American Constitution Michael Dean Jalal Nejad, Ph.D. When the United States won freedom from Great Britain after the American Revolution they adopted the Articles of Confederation. Twenty-one years the United States was ruled by the Articles until they adopted the U.S. Constitution in 1787. This made it so that the nation was rules by a sovereign national government, but also the states were sovereign as well. Some advantages that this system has over a strong national government in a highly centralized system is that it encourages competition between the states, as well as it gives sovereignty to the states to run themselves how they best see fit. Some disadvantages of the current system in the United States are that due to federal funding of state budgets if the role of national government was more limited it would have a drastic economic effect on the state. Also due to the aggressive nature of many federal programs the states cannot effectively run these programs themselves and depend on federal support. During the Articles of Confederation the national government was incredibly weak in power, this lack of national power left the nation not running as a whole unit but rather the states as separate organisms. After twenty-one years the United States rewrote their laws, and called it the U.S. Constitution. Under this set of laws the national government was sovereign but still getting its power from the people, and the states were sovereign as well and got their power from the people. Under the U.S. Constitution many different forms of federalism came and went, evolving to where the country is today, which is a marble-cake system of federalism. Marble-cake federalism is the cooperation between different levels of government, whether national, state, or local (Champagne Harpham 43). An advantage this system of government has over a strong national government in a highly centralized system is that it inspires competition amongst the states. Every state has policy issues but most states try to fix that problem their own way. If a state is successful in correcting the issue, then the policy would adjusted nationally to replicate what the state did in order to fix the problem. Another advantage of this system is that it gives states freedom to govern how they best see fit. This goes from gun control laws, traffic violations, and even the death penalty. Disadvantages to the current system in place would be that due to funding from the national government to states budgets if it were to be cut off or diminished, it would have a very profound effect on the economy of the state. This means that too much reliance on national government when it comes to money is a bad thing because some states rely very heavily on the federal government to help them balance their budget. Another disadvantage would be the reliance on federal support for different programs throughout the states, without their support many of these programs would suffer heavily or even fail completely. Due to this crutch that the states have they cannot fully be sovereign. To conclude, this country has gone through many different types of federalism from complete separation of power between the different levels of government to where the country is now which is call marble-cake federalism. There are both advantages and disadvantages that this system has over a strong national government in a highly centralized system. Some advantages would be that it invokes creativity and competition throughout the states (Champagne Harpham 44), as well as giving the states freedom to govern how they see fit. Some disadvantages would be that the states rely too heavily on federal government for funding, as well as leaning too much on the national government when it comes to implementing and maintaining different programs. Works Cited Champagne, Anthony, and Edward J. Harpham. Governing Texas:. New York: W.W. Norton Company, 2013. Print.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Electronic Monitoring Vs. Health Concerns :: essays research papers fc

Electronic Monitoring vs. Health Concerns Is privacy and electronic monitoring in the work place an issue that is becoming a problem? More and more employees are being monitored today then ever before and the companies that do it aren't letting off. While electronic monitoring in the work place may be the cause of increased stress levels and tension, the benefits far exceed the harm that it may cause. Employees don't realize how often electronic monitoring happens in their work place. An estimated twenty million Americans are subjected to monitoring in their work place, commonly in the form of phone monitoring, E-mail searches, and searching through the files on their hard drive (Paranoid 435). A poll by MacWorld states that over twenty-one percent of all employees are monitored at work, and the larger the company, the higher the percentage (Privacy 445). Unaware of this electronic monitoring, most employees often are not working at their peak performance due to this type of scrutiny. The majority of Americans believe that electronic monitoring should not be allowed. Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis states that of all of the freedoms that Americans enjoy, privacy "is the right most valued by civilized men (Privacy 441)." A poll taken by Yankelovich Clancy Shulman for Time, states that ninety-five percent of Americans believe that electronic monitoring should not be allowed (Privacy 444). Harriet Ternipsede, who is a travel agent, gave a lengthy testimonial on how electronic monitoring at her job caused her undue stress and several health problems including muscle aches, mental confusion, weakened eyesight, severe sleep disturbance, nausea, and exhaustion. Ternipsede was later diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Immune Dysfunction Syndrome (Electronic 446). A study done by the University of Wisconsin found that eighty-seven percent of employees subjected to electronic monitoring suffered from higher stress levels and increased tension while only sixty-seven percent of those employees that were not subjected to monitoring had those same symptoms (Paranoid 436). While it is obvious that most employees are against electronic monitoring, the use of electronic monitoring contributes to increased stress levels in employees. While the advantages derived from electronic monitoring far outweigh the disadvantages. Through the use of employee monitoring, companies can save money in overall operations cost by weeding out those employees who don't pull their weight, and cut down on employee theft. By monitoring employees, it is possible to measure their performance and see if they are meeting standards. By getting rid of those employees who don't meet standards the burden of daily tasks is lifted on every other employee in that department. Eighty to ninety percent of business theft is internal (Paranoid

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Explication Of Sharon Olds Poem, Late Poem To My Father :: essays research papers

Sharon Olds’ poem â€Å"Late Poem to My Father† exposes the profound effect that childhood trauma can have on someone, even in adulthood. The speaker of the poem invokes sadness and pity in the reader by reflecting on the traumatic childhood of her father, and establishes a cause and effect relationship between the abuse he endured as a child and the dependence he develops on alcohol as an adult. The idea of emotional retardation caused by childhood experiences is not uncommon, especially in our modern world of prevalent substance abuse, dysfunctional families, and child abuse. However, Olds’ poem is a moving testament to this tragic loss of innocence due to the powerful imagery she weaves throughout the first half of the poem. In addition, Olds skillfully uses figurative language and deliberate line breaks throughout the poem to develop the dismal sorrow her speaker feels while reflecting on the childhood of her father. The poem opens with the speaker experiencing an epiphany while contemplating on her father’s childhood, and later in the poem we learn that this contemplation is more specifically focused on the causes of her father’s dependence on alcohol. In the first seven lines of the poem she uses descriptive details to establish a dark, foreboding image of the setting. For example, in lines two and three she describes the house with â€Å"unlit rooms† and a â€Å"hot fireplace†. She goes on to portray her father as â€Å"a boy of seven, helpless, smart,...† which reinforces his innocence in this imagery of darkness. It is interesting to note how the speaker distinguishes these details, yet in lines three and six, she refers to her father’s father only as â€Å"the man†. She intentionally refers to him in this flat way so as to convey to the reader that he is unworthy of any characterization. She also omits characterization in line six when she writes, â€Å"there were things the man did near you,† purposely emphasizing â€Å"things† with no other explanation. This leads to the assumption that some actions are too abominable to convey in words, thus leaving us with a vast array of uncomfortable possibilities to consider. The description of the â€Å"sweet apples picked at their peak...rotted and rotted,†in lines nine and ten establishes a comparison between her father’s loss of innocence, and the ripe fruit being left to waste. In line eleven she writes, â€Å"past the cellar door the creek ran and ran† which is a contrast to the apples being trapped within the cellar (like the child in the house), and the creek being on the outside, where the idea of escape exists.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Stefan’s Diaries: The Craving Chapter 7

Every muscle in my body tensed. Time seemed to stop as we stared into each other's eyes, both of us silently challenging the other to give himself away. My chest felt tight as anger coiled through my body. The last time I'd seen Damon, he'd been standing over me with a stake, just after he'd killed Callie. His cheeks had been sunken, his body gaunt from his time in captivity. Now he looked like his human self, the young man who charmed everyone from barmaids to grandmothers. Clean-shaven, dressed smartly, and playing the part of an Italian count flawlessly. Acting human. He had everyone in the room fooled. Damon raised one eyebrow at me and the twitch of a smile appeared at the corner of his mouth. To any onlooker, it would have seemed just like he was pleased to meet a new acquaintance. I knew better. Damon was enjoying his charade and waiting to see how I reacted. â€Å"Stefan Salvatore, may I introduce Count Damon DeSangue,† Lydia said. Damon gave a perfect bow, just barely bending at the waist. â€Å"DeSangue . . .† I repeated. â€Å"Count DeSangue,† Damon corrected in good humor, affecting an Italian accent. He smiled, revealing a straight set of gleaming white teeth. No, not here, I thought furiously. Not here in New York, not here among these innocent, well-meaning Sutherlands. Had Damon followed me here, or had he arrived first? He had been here long enough to attach himself to poor Lydia. And long enough to trick all of New York society. Is it possible that, in this teeming city, we both managed to become involved with the Sutherland family completely by coincidence? Damon was regarding me now, although the icy twinkle of sardonic humor was never far from his eyes, as if he guessed at what I was thinking. â€Å"Stefan, Damon – I just know you two are going to be like brothers,† Bridget gushed to me. â€Å"Well then,† Damon said, a smirk pulling the corner of his mouth. â€Å"Hello, brother! And where are you from, Stefan?† â€Å"Virginia,† I answered shortly. â€Å"Oh really? Because I was recently in New Orleans and could have sworn I met a gentleman who looked just like you. Have you been there?† Lydia leaned in closer, her eyes bright with pride. Bridget nodded eagerly at every word Damon said. Even Bram and Hilda looked entranced. I gripped my champagne glass so tightly I was surprised it didn't shatter. â€Å"No. I can't say I've ever been.† The happy tinkle of silverware from the refreshment table suddenly rose to the foreground. Hundreds of people, hundreds of blades, and one very angry, unpredictable brother before me. â€Å"Interesting,† he said. â€Å"Well, perhaps we will go back there, together. I hear they have a magnificent circus.† The orchestra began to play again, another fast-paced dance. But that was noise in the background. The ball and its participants faded away. Right now, Damon and I had our eyes locked on each other. â€Å"If you even try something,† I said low enough that only he could hear, squaring my shoulders and unconsciously tensing for a fight. â€Å"Don't think you can best me,† Damon said, rolling to the balls of his feet. The group of people we were with looked back and forth at us, clearly aware that something was going on, but unsure what exactly. â€Å"I'm feeling a bit thirsty,† I finally said aloud, not moving my eyes from his, trying to think of how to get Damon away from my new friends. â€Å"Care to join me for a drink?† â€Å"Smashing, I'd love one,† said Bram eagerly, hoping to break the tension. â€Å"Love to,† Damon said, mocking Bram's tone. â€Å"But duty – and the mazurka – calls.† He turned to Hilda and bowed. â€Å"May I?† â€Å"Oh, I'd love to, but Bram . . .† She started to hold up the dance card that hung around her wrist from a pink ribbon. Then her eyes widened, dilating, and she was staring – but no longer at the card. I looked at Damon. He was also staring, compelling her. Showing off, in front of everyone – in front of me – just how powerful he was. He was sending me a message. â€Å"Oh, he won't mind,† Hilda decided and took Damon's arm. He led her off, smiling back at me. The tips of his fangs glittered. â€Å"I wish I had his charm,† Bram said a little wistfully. â€Å"He's got all you ladies wrapped around his finger.† Lydia blushed prettily. She did not look after Hilda with a worried expression. She had the calm confidence of someone who knew exactly where her lover stood in his relation to her. Damon had no doubt compelled her to act as such. He had amassed a considerable amount of Power, very quickly. â€Å"Where exactly did you two meet?† I asked, trying to sound casual. â€Å"Oh, it was so romantic,† Bridget answered quickly. â€Å"Almost as romantic as you finding me, helpless, in the park. . . .† â€Å"Let your sister speak, Bridgey,† Bram interrupted. Lydia smiled, all of her studied politeness and mannered behavior melting away. â€Å"It really was a bit like a fairy tale. It was raining, a sudden downpour. I remember very particularly that the sun had been shining just moments earlier. Unprepared for the change of weather, Mother and I became soaked. My new hat was ruined, and all my packages were dripping wet. I swear a dozen carriages must have passed us by without stopping. And then – one of them paused, and the door opened, and there he was, extending his hand to me.† Her eyes grew soft. â€Å"He offered to give up his seat, but we got in with him. . . .† Bram made tsk-tsking noises; Lydia smiled, shrugging prettily. â€Å"I know, I know . . . ‘taking a ride with a strange man.' Very bad of us. But he was so polite, and charming . . . and we had such a lovely ride . . . and then the sun came out and we hardly noticed. . . .† My mind raced. Had Damon compelled every carriage driver in Manhattan to avoid Lydia and her mother? Was it even possible to compel that many people at once? And what about the rain? Had that been luck . . . or something else entirely? Damon wasn't capable of compelling the weather. If that were a power available to vampires, I would have heard of it from Lexi or even Katherine. Right? I studied Lydia. She wore a simple, narrow ribbon around her neck with a single pearl dangling from the front. The skin there was smooth, unblemished – and unbitten. If Damon wasn't feeding on Lydia, then what did he want from her? â€Å"Someone said something about being thirsty . . . ?† Bram said hopefully, rubbing his hands together. â€Å"I have a terrible desire for more champagne.† â€Å"Yes, thirst is a terrible thing,† I said, â€Å"but you'll have to excuse me.† Then I turned and cut my way through the merrily dancing crowd, determined to search out my brother before he had the chance to slit anyone's throat.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Knock’s Educated Man

The â€Å"Disadvantages of Being Educated† examines contemporary society’s preference for building specialized skills at the expense of liberal education. Albert Knock believes that today’s curricula have changed its orientation from helping create the Renaissance Man from the tabula rasa into the mechanic of Ford or the programmer of Silicon Valley. Knock pointed out that this is training and should not be synonymous with education. Being proficient or trained in something could categorize one as trained but not educated. Training is not synonymous to having been educated. Knock’s man has cultivated his intellect and character to the point where his options for the future included, in his words, â€Å"what he could become and be instead of what he could get and do†. What is surprising for him is contemporary society’s not distinguishing between the difference between training and education which was not the case before. During the Medieval period, scholars of classical works were looked upon as learned men. The cobbler, builder, stonemasons, tinkerers, and town criers were on a subordinate level far below that of the scholastics. Carrying on with Knock’s line of thought, we could imagine the manual laborers of the Dark Ages as having become shoe stylists and fashion models, engineers, computer programmers and technicians, and TV hosts of today who are good in their fields and perhaps below mediocre in dialectics. Yet, the honor of having â€Å"made it† is easily applied to them by contemporary society than to the stereotyped harried-looking teacher of a university. Knock has nothing against the emphasis on specialization. He argued that specialization and liberal education are relevant. Both could be had instead of having one being preferred at the expense of the other. Knock expressed regret this is not so today. The educated man that he had in mind would be hard put to find his place in today’s modern setting. His educated man is open to other fields of interests that would encourage the thinking process: argue the ills of society, participate in dialectics, and develop a mind that is always inquiring and trying to discover what is good for the best kind of life. Since today’s trend in life is getting the proper or specialized skill that could ensure one a high-paying job, Knock’s educated man would have difficulty connecting with his contemporaries. He would not be in agreement with their having narrowing the focus of their concentration and energy to the mundane ambition of having an eight- to- five job that could buy them a Superbowl ticket and ensure a healthy pension after working as a cog or bolt in an assembly line. He would not even care to become the main nut in that assembly line. Each field created its own complexities and somebody having found himself a niche in his chosen field could claim a consultancy fee. I could be a consultant to the Tupperware Company if my scientific expertise resulted to inventing a fireproof plastic. The skill acquired in such a field may be hopelessly irrelevant during the Renaissance period but the pay is hopefully and insanely more than sufficient to ensure a comfortable life while still pursuing new plastic discoveries. One can only stay in the business if he or she will continue to update with new developments or make new developments himself. Failure to do so would condemn oneself to irrelevance in his chosen field. Meaning, the acquisition of knowledge on plastics will have to continue until the moment I die, perhaps induced by having to work with plastic. The competition for the American dream is rigid and I could not afford to pause for a breath asking the meaning of life while everybody else is plunging down to their success. As a student, Knock would prefer me to be the educated man that he has in mind. He wouldn’t agree to my cultivating a mindset that looks forward to having just a job to enable me to pay for my daily meals, ensure payment for my cable bills, and after work enabling me to be a couch potato. Knock would love see me entertain ideas for ideas’ sake and look at them as an educated man would look: objectively and disinterestedly. Knock perhaps sees the mainstream as a flock of sheep narrowing their vision on the grass before them and seldom raising their heads to appreciate the greater perspective. For most of us-including me- the trend is acquiring skills; the more specialized the skill, the greater the opportunity for a well-placed and well-paying job. The past-paced world that we have today is unkind to thinkers. Why pursue the meaning of life when what is life has already been defined by the American dream? Consumerist society measures a man by his capability to purchase the hottest and the latest pick. For someone to indulge in the search for the meaning of life would be condemning oneself to a meaningless life of penury and from the viewpoint of the mainstream-irrelevance. The social construct on success has already been insinuated, defined, and considered as an end. Knock may quote Longfellow and implore me, â€Å"Be not like dumb, driven cattle, be the hero in the strife†. Yes, I have already heard it in the required subjects in the first year and it is difficult to indulge myself in them when I am about to major in something useful. History, reexamining its ills, could not buy my cappuccino at Starbucks; Moliere and his wit could not pay for my taxicab fare; and I have no time to waste on Kant’s â€Å"Critique on Pure Reason† when I have to attend a workshop on plastics. Free thinking could free the soul, nourish the intellect, and strengthen the character. This is quite noble and at best, the preoccupation of the Renaissance Man. This is tempting but it would be difficult to explain myself to my friends in when we met to socialize or even to my family during a reunion.